|AHİLİK - AKHİ|
AN 'AKHI' GENEALOGICAL TREE
By, Sadi BAYRAM
Publication by, Ankara/Turkey, Belleten, LVIII, Ağustos 1994, S.222, s.295-327, lev.15 lev.
It would be proper and much enlightening to look for the reasons why and how the Ottoman Empire could perpetuate a brillant existence on three continents, Asia, Europe and Africa, in the Akhi Order or Fraternity. In other words, Akhi faith and principles should be counted amongst a myriads of factors that contributed into six centuries of Ottoman domination on these three continents.
An Arabic word, the word 'akhi' means 'my brother' or 'brethren'. Further it connotes and expresses unions, leagues, sydicates ete. established and developped by artisans and traders (1). The Order had been instrumental in training, forming, educating shop assistants, helpers, apprentices, master craftsmen, crafstmen ete. from thirteenth century onwards until the beginning of the present century in hundreds of branches of arts, crafts trades and skills. The Order helped arrange pageantry, ceremonies at which formed traders, artisans etc. were promoted, trained spiritually as well as morally its adherents, followers and disciples in hu-manities, etiquettes, worldly virtues and social behaviour.
In "Divan-ü Lugat-i-Türk", a Turkish dictionary penned in 1072 by Mahmud from Kashgar, the word 'akhi' is paraphrased as bon coeur, kind, helper, brave, generous in mind and heart as well as in purse (2) and 'being an akhi' as bravery, generosity and solidarity (3).
Futuwwanama's are constitutional statutes of the Order. The word 'futuwwat' is also Arabic -the scientific and scholarly language of the rimes. The singular form of the word is 'feta' meaning brave, generous, undaunted, docile ete. Its plural form is 'fityan'. Feta means jevanmerd in Persian (4) or rather a youth who collects all these hest qualities in his char-acter.
In short, in both languages, i.e. Arabic and Persian, the word 'feta' and its plural form 'fityan' symbolize, deseribe and idealize the pefect man, the accomplished human being.
In combat a feta endangers his own life to secure those of his friends and companions, he is hospitable, generous and such qualities and virtues can never be pushed to alimit. He never feels exhausted of his unsparing help and assislance.
Abu Bakr Varrak descrihes feta as the person who has no enemies, known or unknown (5). Omar b. Osman el-Makki describes 'feta' a person, a youth of benevolent charaeter and docility. To cover up weaknesses of his companions and mends and to protect oneself from the enmity of enemies are prerequisites of "feta" ( 6 ).
A hadith says "as man (in relation to Allah) helps his muslim brethren he gains Allah's help" (7) Abraham's generosity to the limit -his attempted sacrifice to slaughter his own son for the sake of Allah- his genemsity, joseph's forgiveness vis-a-vis his own brothers and joshua's companionship for Moses make them all feta since they all obeyed futuwwa and acted as befits such character (8) .
In Sufism futuwwa is being deseribed as man's enmity against his own self for the sake of Allah ( 9). Main charaeteristics of futuwwa may be summarized as: meet eviidr wickedness with bounty and goodness, not to seek faults and imperfections in others, not to go to your mends' homes unless invited there, not to seek deficiency or fault with what is ofered to you in dinner table, to have good behaviour, to be generous, to love people, to worship Allah, to show respect to elders and to cherish the young, to be worthy of one's promise, to take part in mends' jubilations and merrıment, not to expect a good tum for a good tum done, not to repro-ach someone for anything bad done, to work hardest, to dominate and control one's own self, to worship, to have will power, to be patient, to shun covetousness, to seek wonders in science, not to chase away the disciple who is at fault, to be modest, tolerant, to prefer your friends' comfort to your own, to put up with your friends' caprices, to keep one' s friends' secrets as such-to be discreet-, not to brag about a good turn done to others, to give without being asked to give and thus not to force your friends to ask for a favour etc; to observe religiously your neighbour's right, justice and due, observance of a promise, to go to the house of a friend who cannot come to your house, to shun haughtiness, to observe and adhere to canonical precepts and tenets (10).
According to a legend Akhi Evran, the founding father of the Order or fraternity is the son of Abbas, an unde of the Prophet Mohammed (11). His real name being Mahmud, it is said that the Prophet had given him the title of Sultan Akhi Evran on account of his valiant exploits at the time of Badr War and made him marry Rukiyya, a daughter of Ali, the Caliph.
As a common word Evran means a dragon. You would all recall that the word dragon has always symbolized eternal life -this, since Central Asian Turks-and was therefore sacred. A synonym of akhi is eternal guardian. This, according to legends in which dragons are said to safeguard treasures and watch ruins and old relics of ancient civilisations. On walls, portals and frontispiece of certain Seljukid caravanserais and castles as well as other edifices and public buildings there exist dragon bas-reliefs (12). According to another set of legends the herb of eternal life is swallowed by a dragon - as it is the case in Gılgamesh" legends where eternal life is discovered by Hızır (A legendary person who attained immortality by drinking from the water of Life) and Lokman14 (name of a legendary sage regarded as the father of medicine).
In the Middle-Eastem culture it is customary to link legendary personalities to prophets through veli 's or friends of Allah 15. This tradition is reflected in genealogical trees as links in bload, whereas in fact it is sim" ply a chain from one spiritual leader and Sufi teacher to the next and so on 16. And since all sciences were transmitted to Prophet Mohammed through the Archangel Gabriel this chain of tranmission (of scientific knowledge of all sorts) the last link of the chain ends in Adam passing through Prophets Mohammed, Abraham and Noah 17.
Claiming descendence from Akhi Evran, Mrs. Aliye Evran from Ankara has recently brought for translation into taday's Turkish of the Akhi GenealogicaI Tree in her possession to Mrs Ülkü Ozsoy (18) of the Cultural Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations. Since it was a remarkable piece of work it was photographed and translated and thus offered to the perusal of scholars working and interested in this field (19). it will be seen that it is the question of two Akhi Evrans as depicted in legends (20). According to the genealogical tree in the possession of Mrs Aliye Evran two family lines develop chronologicaIly as follows:
The son of Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammed (Akhi Evran) Abdulmuttalıp
Khushaii Khulap (Gülab)
As to the family line, deseending from Abbas-ı Akbar, the genealogical tree we are talkıng
about gives the following sequence:
Rukkia, (daughter or Abdallah Ali, the Caliph) Akbi Hızır
Akhi Evran Sheik Mahmud Nassrud-din
Akhi Mussa AIthi Amira
Akhi Amir junnaid Akhi Muh. Bukhari AIthi Hussein AIthi Mahssud Akhi Ivaz
Akhi Mussa Akhi Issa
(missing lines on the genealogical Tree)
Akhi Ali (1475 AD)
Akhi Zeyne'l-Abidin AIthi Kassem
Akhi Torat (1526 AD)
Due to limited time at my disposal I present a photostatic copy or the text of the tree as it iıs. The genealocial tree is penned in Nesih script on a roll or paper 200 centimerters long and 25 centimeters wide. It is to be perused at the end or the text even the ten-line prayer-litany lto be read at the end of the donning of sash of an artisan -who is being promoted - at a ceremony held on the occasion. The genealogical tree we have been talking about here is iinteresting from another point of view that it is in possession of a famliy that still bears the patron-saint's original and only name: Evran. Omamentations on the tree dating from 1803 AD has the characteristics of the last century and reflects the degenerated form of the provincial Turkish art of embellishment.
Mawlana Jelalledin-i Rumi, Yunus Emre, Haji Bekthashi Veli and Akhi Evran Nassrud-din had played very important role in shaping and consolidating solidarity amongst Turkish tribes in the Anatolia of the Thirteenth century and trained and formed populations at large spiritual-Iy and mentally that led to a propitious background for Ottornan culture at later periods (21). Osman Ghazi, the founder of the Attoman dynasty (22) and empire had donned futuwwa baggy trousers from his own father-in law, the Sheik Edebali. His son Orhan Ghazi and Sultan Murat I
were akhis 23.
While forming, training, shaping and educating the young apprentices, assistant craftsmen, novices etc during daytime in their workshops and other premises, at night they all gathered in the akhi house or lodge where they ate and drank together, played and danced together and laught social manners, humanities, history, language, literature etc to the same.
Education, training and formation of apprentices, masters, craftsmen etc was not confined necessarily to these disciples and adherents the enlightened section of the population, the literati, poets, philosophers etc also attended these nightly dissertations and lectures at akhi llodges.
Side by side with ethical formation of their members, personal and business integrity etc the akhis have also set up some solid organizations whereby to help their members, to form solidarity amongst them by punishing again amongst their ranks and files cheating tradesmen or craftsmen, protecting rights and honours of those producing quality goods and of prospering trade. In short they had what may be termed as an autocontrol in their system of trading, vanous inter-trade transactions ete.
Akhis used to advise their disciples and adherents the following six points: keep your hands open (don't be close-listed, be generous), keep your table open (offer food to the needy), keep you house door ajar (be hospitable), keep your eyes covered (by a band of cloth meaning don't see your friends' deficiencies or weaknesses), keep your tongue tied (don't talk to give way your mends' secrets, exercise tact and don't talk of evil or bad of anyone, don't talk rubbish, talk in such a manner and at such a time that people -your listeners- will prolit from what you say), keep your beit tight (do not commit adultery). These maxims have much deeper meanings that the words can convey. The real aim is then to form, train and educate the perfect man. Isn't this the same idealistic and virtuous thought in Sufism?
Craftsmen and traders in the akhi order will gather under the dome of prayers (24) every morning before opening their shops and premises to pray, under the leadership of their akhi elders and to listen to their good advices. if one of the traders in the same arasta -shops of the same trade built in a row- had not had his first sale of the day his brethren, i.e. owners of shops next to his will send the next customer to his shop saying "I myself had my first sale of the day, but my brethren in the next shop had not had his yet, so may I ask you kindly to proceed thereto for your purchases". This is indicative of the fact that akhis did not think of themselves alone, they were attentive and careful abaut social justice, prosperity, distribution of income in an equal manner etc and were somewhat oblivious of extreme wealth and affiuence from which to egoistically prolit. There existed even no notion of competition, prices of similar goods being same in every place, in every shop in almost excellent quality. Strict rules of quality and self-control over each individual production were jealously observed.
Akhis had their own finandal resources in the form of common coffert, common purse and mutual assistance funds or cais" whereby they could assist financially their members and extend loans without interest.
Pious Foundations established from 1299 .foundation of the Ottoman Empire until 1453 .conquest of Istanbul and the end of Byzantium- by Akhi Order and their deeds of trust in the custody of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations may be summed up as follows:
We learn from log 581/2 in the Archives of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations in Ankara in the year 1438 (AD) a certain Shemseddin Akhi Ahmed bin Akhı eI-Haj Murad bin el-Haj Hussam endowed all his personal possession for education and training of pupils in the medresseh that he had constructed to bear his name.
Deed of trust belonging to endowment made and estabIished in the name of Hajı Mehmet Akhi Pehlivan of Nikssar (northeastern AnatoIia) in July 1323 indicate that money and properties bequeathed were to be used to finance education of the poor and to feed the needy Furthermore, for his lodge -or rather for the lodge that bears his name- he bequeathed !able sets, cutlery, silvers ete. plus wheat, meat, bread, salt, honey -fifty pounds-, halva (a sort of Turkish sweet made of semolina, sugar and sesame seeds), cooking oil and fat, flour,fuell wood, oIive oil or fat for ceiling lamps etc to be perpetuated rents collected from host of other properties and buildings he left rented. Moreover, he stipulated enough sums to be used for repair and restoration of public fountains in his district.
In Tchorum (a northern town in AnatoIia some 200 miles northeast of Ankara) Akhi Ahmed bin Emir Hassan leaves all his property for an akhi lodge to be built 1366 AD and bequeathes all his fields, lands, vineyard, orchards etc. for the maintenance ad infinitum and supply of this llodge. We also learn through this self same deed of trust that at that time 1366 AD there was an active akhi lodge in Tchorum, that of Sheik Zeynuddin.
From another deed of trust, estabIished this time by Shemsuddin Ahmet Tchelebi, also known as Akhi and Mint Master of Amassia, in 1430 AD we learn that he was instrumental in the construction and supply of Akhi Mahmud Lodge in that same city, named after his father.
Deed of trust registered in Log 1760 in the vault of Archives Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations says that in 1437 AD Bedreddin Akhi Mahmud of Kaisseri (the ancient Caesarea) had beqeathed ad infinitum arable land, watermill, houses etc. in the district of Gömeç.
A study of Mehmet Akhi Effendi's deed of trust dated 1443 AD indicate that this akhi had also left considerable property in the form of endowments.
In his deed of trust bearing the date of 1334 AD, Ahmed bin Zeynul Haj, alias Akhi Amir of Sivas (eastern Anatolia) says he had constructed an akhi lodge and a mesjid (smail mosque) adjacent to it in the district of Tokmak of Sivas. For the financial support and generatian of funds for the maintenance of these creations he endowed several shops and premises within the centre of the city as well as arable lands, fields, orchards, vineyards in the township called Hafik. Amongst shops thus beqeathed there were pickles seller's, butcher's, bakery, syrop and fruit juice seller's, general store, Ebeheri Public Bath. Guests in this bath paid nothing, revenues from arable lands and orchards were spent for the maintenance and supply of the akhi llodge, poor students and students housed in buildings adjacent to the lodge were also provided. These are all indicative of both akhi spirit and tradition: loyalty to his brethren, fraternity in its deepest sense and implication, friendliness, solidarity and assistance provided for the poor and the needy.
In Log 2105 kept in the Archives Section of the Cultural and Registry Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations there exists also a deed of trust registered in the name of Pir-i Piran Akhi Evran Nassrüddin of Kırshehir (a mid-Anatolian township where the saint patron of artisans and traders Akhi Evran has his sacred tomb) and dated 1306 AD. Its entry into the Log 2105 dates April 1917. Deeds of trust for pious foundations established and registered by a.zi;za, the saints were kept outside the control and handling of the Ministry of Awkaf. A study of this deed of trust reveals the following:
For welcoming of and providing for guests descending at guesthouse adjacent to Akhii Evran Veli (the saint) Lodge and to His mesjid (smail mosque that go with the complex) the following properties and lands are endowed ad infinilum: Various arable lands, presently used for a series of agricultural purposes situated at Kızılca, Pazar Ağıl, Çardak, Lodran, Kal-pak, Kara Halil Pür Village, İnce Kar, Yazıbicir, Gökçeli, Kızılkaya, Ağmalca, Ağıl, Karslan, Arslan, Tomuş, Mikail Hisarlı, Beydüzü, Kozağaç, Mucur, Gümüş, Kümbet, Sefir Saray, Yazı Kınık, Akhi Yüzler, Kükgeven, İlmülk and Gökçehüyük. Names of these places are also im-portant from apoint of toponomy, as we learn, infer and surmise from place names that at the period in question there happened to be living some famous personalities inler alia:
Sheik Hamid-i Veli, Khadi Ahmed Fawzi, Khadı Esseyyid Lütfuilah, Khadi Esseyyid Hassan bin Hussein, Khadi Mustafa, Khadi Ahmed Bende-i Huda, Khadi Mehmet Mazhar, Khadi Abdurahman, Shehit Abdullah bin Ali, Shehit Suleiman bin Mehmet, Shehit Yussuf bin Ahmed, Shehit Ahmed bin Hassan, Shehit Yunus bin İsmail, Shehit İhras bin Ahmed, Shehit Hussein bin Bayazet, Shehit Mustapha Effendi bin Bahshaish, Shehit Mussa bin Dawlat, Shehit Molla Ali bin Mahmud Molla, Shehit weshtimi Tehelebi bin Messud.
lt is understood from a study of various deeds of trust that between the years 1300-1453 akhis have terminated the construction of their lodges, houses and other gathering premises in Edirne, Sivas, Kayseri and Çorum provinees of the Empire. Thousands and thousands of deeds of trust yet to be cIassified and registered are outside the ones we have mentioned already.
Furthermore, when akhi pious foundations in and around Ankara are ,canned we have endowments conceming Elvan Mosque, Akhi Shemseddin Mesjid, the Green Akhi Medresseh and Mosque, Akhi Sheraffeddin Mosque, Akhi Hajı Murad Mosque and Akhi Tchomak Foundations.
Several Turkish tribes have had their special sigmas and stamps ever 'İnce they lived in Central Asia, similarly at the times of both Anatolian Seljukids and Ottoman Empire in buildings, publie or otherwise, masons that is stonemasons construeting walls etc had their own marks engraved on stone, (25). it is possible to discern these marks for example in Great Mosque in Sivas (a twelth century masterpiece), in Bayazet II complex of buildings, on side walls of Büyük Çekmece Bridge built by Great Sinan and several other monuments and historic buildings in Anatolia proper.
In dissertations, debates and colloquiums engaged in in akhi lodges and guesthouses much philosophical thoughts and aspirations were exchanged between lodge members and their guests. Folkloric pageantry and banquets without liqour were of Tered.
Friendly intercourses, conversations and lively talks in akhi lodges and houses went on until quite recendy in several central Anatolian townships (26).
By the end of the sixteenth century, due to non-admission of nonmuslims into their ranks and files, foreign trade being in the hands of Christian or jewish subjects of the Sultan, entry iinto trade of military dasses, transformation of the Akhi Fraternity into labour unions or syndi-cates, leagues etc and finally due to capitulations and privileges recognized to foreign powers lled first to decline in the economy and trade of the Empire and this decline and fall precipitated the downfall of the Akhi order.
The Akhi thought, philosophy, precepts and practices that originated in the Central Asia, transmitted to Baghdad through the Abbasids and from there to Anatolia proper through Great Seljukid Empire, had firmly established itself, developed and reached eventual culmination in the life and economy of the land in the years 1250- 1300 AD under its great leader Akhi Evran Nassuriddin Veli, the patron saint of craftsmen and traders of all callings.
European knights who at the head of their crusading soldiers travelled in Anatolia and then iin the Middle-East in a bid to liberate the Holy Land from muslims contacted akhis and were much fascinated by and gready admired their solidarity, work discipline, obedience to their sheiks and identified themselves with the bravery displayed by akhis in batdefields. When the last Crusades ended they all returned home with new ideas and a new tradition much inspired by akhis.
Towards the end of the Medieaval times however through dedine and fall of knighthood, potentates, despots and autocrats had all seen their power and glory overshadowed. Reformist movements and finally renaissance led the nobility to seek fresh occupations. Silk trade with China, import and export created a class of nouveau riche who began to emulate the past grandeur of their former masters and ancesters by building mansions, casdes and palaces that reflected their raw tastes.
Added to these were new churches, temples etc. that badly needed the labour of highly qualified -and therefore rare- stone masons who were extremely few. Stone masons, master stonecutters created marvels with their chisels and gave such magnificience to every structure touched by their hands. Quite logically their leaders, who grouped them around themselves formed societies. These guilds and lodges kept all outsiders at bay as the need for secrecy connected with their skil!, organizational set up and particularities of their crafts was paramount.
Knights who took part with their soldiers in the Crusades and who travelled at length in Anatolia and the Middle-East and in fact every Crusader for that matter contaeted akhis and identified themselves with akhi discipline, secrecy and solidarity that was coupled with Islamic, judaic and Christian traditions that inspired masonic and freemasonic lodges and the philosophy of masons was made public in 1715 through Anderson Rules,
In fact as far as we can delve into the nature, precepts and aims of masonry it seems to be on line with both akhi principles and futuwwa ideals. Whereas futuwwa and akhiism base themselves on Islam and Sufism, freemasons only stipulate a belief in God. They see no difference in three monotheistic creeds and in their congregations they keep three great books open side by side and claim to be enlightened by them. No atheist is admitted into their tight ranks. Akhi apron, akhi girdle or sash are similar to masonic apron to symbolize chastlty and uprightness. Aparı from its religious part and parcel the education and spiritual formation in old Ottoman dervish and akhi lodges remind us of today's ceremonies in masonic lodges.
AHİ EVRAN SECERESİ
Bismillahi' r-rahmani' rahim
EI-hamdü li'lIahi Rabbi'l-alemin ve's-salatu ve's-selamu 'ala Muhammedin ve ali hi ecma'ine. Lemma semi'u nidae "ya eyyühe'lIezine amenü tubu ila' Ilahi tevbeten nasuhen" amenu bi-kavlihi"yuhibbu et-tewabin" ve'stebşeru bi-beşaretin" ve'lIezine cahedu finalenehdiyennehum sabulena ve inne'lIahe leme'a'l-muhsinine'inde zikri' s-salihine tenezzelu 'r-Rahmeti sadaka 'lIahu' I-' azimu'l-celilu '1cebbaru ve nahnu'ala zalike mine'ş-şahidine ve salla'llahu 'ala seyyidina Muhammedin ve alihi ecma'in.
Der-munacat ve menakıb-ı Ahi Evran Padişah Rahmeıu'lIahi 'aleyhi bir gün Halfeı-i Resul Salla'lIahu Te'ala 'aleyhi ve sellem ile oturup çıktıp Meseid-i A'zam'a teveccüh kıldı. Ba'zı ashab-ı kibarla seyyidatları Ahi Evran bile idi. Bir kelb ölisine u~radılar. Sababeler yüzlerin dündürüp enflerin dutup kerhile geçdiler. Resul Halfet-i 'aleyhi ve sellem nutkıle ne güzel dişleri var di di. Andan Ahi Evran Hazreti dönüp geldi ol kelbün derisin yüzüp dibagat idüp Resul Hazretine getürdi. Resulu'llah Salla'lIahu Te'ala 'aleyhi ve sellem anı görüp tahsin eyledi. Rahmetu'llahi'aleyhi Ahi Evran ikidir. Biri 'Abbasi'l-ekberdür. Rahmetu'llahi 'aleyhi ibni'Abdu'I- Muttalib ibni Haşim ibni 'Abdi Menaf ibni Kusayyi Külab İbni Murra ibni Ka'b ibni Malik Bezluy bin Kalıb ibni Fahr ibni Hamza ibni Ma'der ibni Müdrike ibni İlyas ibni Musbır ibni Ran ibni'l-Yesa' ibni Hemişe' ibni Salarnan ibni Rahim ibni Kaydar Tarih ibni İsma'i! ibni İbrahim Halilu'llah 'aleyhi's-selam oglı re'y-i 'Uzeyr bilgil kim, evvel mürşidi ve Ahi ve Şeyhi Hazret-i 'Ali kerrema'llahu vechehudur ve 'Ali'den sonra imam Hasan oldı ve andan sonra imam Hüseyn oldı. Resiilu'llah salla'llahu 'aleyhi ve sellem Hazretleri 'Abbas-ı Ekber"e Ahilik vericek Cebra'il (A.S.) geldi Hazret-i Hak Te'aladan selam getürdi. Eyildi: Ya Resula'lIah, Hakk Te'ala buyurur kim 'Ali Hazretlerine Arslanıık virdi ve Hamza'ya Pehlivanlık virdi ve Abbas-ı Ekbere Evranlık virdi. Anunçün ana Ahi Evran didiler. İmdi Ahi olan kişinin eli açuk gerek ve sofrası açuk gerek. Hazret-i 'Ali kerrema'llahu vechehu buyurdı kim Ahilikden murad sehavetdür. Ahinün kim sehaveti (veti) ve sofrası olmasa anun Ahiligi bi-ferdandur, Ahi olmaga bu şartlar lazımdur (27). "Aziz min imdi bilgil ki Hazret-i Resulu'llah salla'llahu 'aleyhi ve sellem ve Hazret-i Ali'nin kerrema'llahu vechehu, 'Abbas-ı Ekber ammileridir. Hazret-i Resulu'llah salla'llahu'aleyhi ve sellem sahabeye eyiıdi: Ben 'Abbas-ı Ekber'e pişenlik yirdüm. Siz ne virirsiz didi. Her biri birer teberrük virdiler. Hazret-i 'Ali, kızı Rukiyye'yi ( 28) 'Abbas-ı Ekber' oglu 'Abdu'llah'a (29) virdi. Andan sonra Ahi Hızır oldı andan Ahi Malik oldı andan Ahi Beşir oldı. Ahi Beşir'den Ahi Ahmed oldı. Ahi Ahmed Cüneyd andan Şehr oldı. An-dan Ahi Zayidi oldı, Ahi Zayidrden Ahi Esed oldı. Ahi Esed'denAhi Turan oldı. Ahi Turan'dan Ahi İlyas oldı, Ahi İlyas'dan Ahi Cürcani oldı. Ahi Cürcani'den Ahi Kemal oldı, Ahi Kemal'den Bazirgan'dan oldı. Ahi B:izirgan'dan Ahi Şehred oldı ve andan ikinci Ahi Evran oldı ve Ahi Musa oldı ve İrşad dahi Evrandur kıldı. Ahi Emire degdi. Ahi Emirci (?) dahi Evrandur. Kanndaşı oglı Ahi ~usa'nın ogludur ve Ahi Evran'ın dahi adı Nasrud-din idi. Bunlar Ahi Bazirgan oglanlarıdur. 'Abbas-ı Ekber neslidür. Ahi Emir Cüneyd' den Ahi Muhammed Buhari oldu. Muhammedi'I-Buhari'den Ahi Hüseyn oldı. Ahi Hüseyn'den Ahi Maksud oldı. Ahi Maksud'dan Ahi Nasuh oldı. Ahi Nasuh'dan Ahi 'Ivaz oldı. Ahi Ivaz'dan Ahi Musa oldı. Ahi Musa'dan üç oglan oldı. Biri Ahi .Musa, biri Ahi 'İsa, biri Ahi Mustara'dur. Biri Ahi Evliya'nun oglu Ahi 'Ali'dür. Dahi Medine'ye gelüp Hicret-i Nebevi'nün semanun ve semane mi'eti (880 H.) (30) yılında gelüp Seyyid Muhammed'den bahrına beden nesebi beyan edüp nesli beline kuşadıp irşada havale idüp revane oldı ve dahi Ahi Mes'ud oglu Ahi Zeyne'l-Abidin'dür ve Ahi Zeyne'l-'Abidin'ün oglu Ahi Kisım'dur. Ahi Kisım oglu Ahi Torat'dur. Kerbela'ya varup selase ve selasiln ve ııs'a mi'eıin (933 H.) (31) yılında nesli beline bagladup kuşanup Seyyid Muhammed aleti elinden revane oldı ve Hazreı-i SebMdal ve Nekayib Sahi (?) Seyyid Gıyase'ddin'den Tecdid-i Fatiha ve Teksir eyledi. İeazeı-i 'ihabeı virilp buyurdı kim her kimesne kim bu tarika iştiyak ve taleb idilp bunlara yapışup 'inabeı idilp meyiin bagladup ieazeı' alsa ıamam kamil olur. Zira tarikın gösıermişdur vedahi Ahi Evran neslidur. Ba'dehu Evran nesli bundan beyan olunur.Ve erkan-ı tarik yuzinde mı1lahaza olundı imdi her kimesne bu tarikden recası vardur gerekdir ki yolunda şekk(u)şubhe göıurmeye. Zira Hazreı-i Fauma Radiya'llahu 'anha neslidur. Hazreı-i Resill salla'llahi'aleyhi ve sellem buyurmuşıur: Kile (A.S.): "Men ekreme evladi fakad ekremeni felehu el-cenneıi sadaka". Kile (A.S.): "Ve men ahkara evladi fakad ahkarani felehu'n-nari sadaka." Resill Hazreı-i salla'llahu Te'aıa 'aleyhi ve sellem ne didi (er) kim me'ş-şeri'aıu ve ma'lhakikatu kale'n-Nabiyyı1 salla'lahu 'aleyhi ve sellern."
"Eş-şeri'uaıu akvali ve'l-tarikaıu ef'ali ve'l-hakikaıu hali. "ya'ni ResUl salla'llahu 'aleyhi ve sellem buyurmuşdur ki şeri'aı benim kavlimdur, tarikatı benim ef'alimdur, hakikat Mlumdur didi ve bir hadis dahi buyurdı ki; "Eş-şeri'atü huve'I-Kur'an'un zahirun ve't-tarikatu bânun ve'l-ma'rifetü zatuhu.' Ya'ni şeri'at Kur'an'nın zahiridur, tarikat batunidür, hakikat sırridur, ma'rifet zatıdur. Pes tarikat ve hakikat ve şeri'at heman olmtşdur ki canile ten oldu. Bir hakikaı bereketi ve şeri'aı dahi ıarikaı bilmekdur ki esrar-ı tıahi'nun mufıileri şöyle rivayeı itmişler ve ahbar ve asar-ı na-mutenahi nakilde geıurdiler ger füıuvveı keliim-ı kadim-i ezelide mezkilr ve menşilr hukm-i lem-yezelide mestUr ki kalil; "Semi'na feten yezkuruhum yukalu lehu İbrahimsadaka" ve dahi bilmek gerekdur ki a'zam mıuvvetdir. Ve devletlu ol kişi kim edeb anın nefsinde mezkilrdur. Şöyle kim buyurmuşlar "babu'llah mefıilhun la yedhuluM illa biadabin ve inneke hulasa vudı'a küllu şey'in ii merıebetihi' dur. Ve dahi bilmek gerekdur kim mlüvveı cemi' adab-ı tarikaı ile arasıe ve pirasıedur ve ruıbe-i ıa'aı velokma yimek ve mukaleme itmek ve ıarikıyla gitmek varup övmek (?) ve kemer-besıelik ve açmaklık edeb ve zahir ve (zahir) ve baun ahlaki hamide ve a'mal-i saliha ile isıinas iden ve ol kehrimeşden olma ısıa'uzu bi'llahi" ve lakad zere' na Ii-cehenneme kesiren mine'l-cinni ve'l-unsi lehum kulilbun la yafkahune biha ve lehum a'yununla-yubsırüne biha ve lehum azanun la yesma'ilne biha ula'ike ke'l-enam bel hum adallu ula'ike humu'l-gafılilne" ve fuıuvveıdur gerekdur kim Ilahi hasletle murad ile evvel ve mıuvveıun alu merkezi vardur ve mu'ayyen ola kim onun üç rükni Küşadlıkdur. Tevfik-i tıahi evvel kapusu ehl-ullah' (a) açık ola, ikinci küşad nişanı ya'ni Riller yuzi ola, uçunci hulkı hoş ola. "Hel etake hadisu dayfı Ibrahime el-mükremine iz dahalu 'aleyhi" ve hulkı hoş ola sözi kabul itmekdür. Ey 'aziz 'ilm ve 'amel ve zühdi bilgil nedür az yimek az yaımak ve bu akvalinün beşinci ve hulasası irtihadur. Mübarek ve şeri'at bi-ism-i seyyidi mürselin ve'l-hamdü li'Ilahi Rabbi'I-'alemin. Ba'is-i tahririnden garaz 01dur ki Ahi 'Ali bin Nefer oglı olan bu dergah-ı mela'ik mekan-ı hazret-i seyyidi'ş-şühedai 'Abdu'lIah Hüseyn Radıya'lIahu 'anhu istina-i şeritlerine müşerref oldı cemi'-i sadat-I 'ızam ve beka-i kiram hizmetlerine oldu kadar belin baglayup ve tekbir-i Musa ile çıkma (?) okudılar ve mezkur dahi kazan kaynadup kurbanlar kesüp huşu' ve huzu'ları ziyarh idüp du'a-i Fatiha'dan sonra şeddi ve sofra ve çıragoımezkur Ahi Evran Şeyh Mahmud kaddese sırrıhu'l-'aziz Hazretleri pir-i debbagan havale olundı gerekdür ki her vilayetün müftneri 'Arabda ve 'Acemde ve Türkde olan ve iklimde olan şeyhler ve ehl-i erkan ve kethüdalar ve ahiler ve şeyhler ve yigitbaşılar ve cümle olan ihtiyarlar gerekdür ki mezkur Ahi Evran Hazretlerinün emrinden tecavüz itmeyeler. Ihtiyarlar, pirler ve her kime sn e murad isterse mezkurun hizmetinde ber-murad olur. Zira ekber-i üstadlardan olan ihtiyarlar (ihtiyar) icazet virdiler. kema huve hakkahu ihtiyar birle enva-i irfet ve i'zazi ve ihtirami dırig eger şekk gösterürse ne'uzu bi'llahi zarar-ı dini ve 'azab-ı sermediyye giriftar ola ve'l-hamdu lillahi Rabbi'l-alemin ve ba'dehu bir kimesne Hazret-i 'Abbas-ı Ekber evla~ından olup hazret-i Imam 'Ali'ye ve hazret-i Imam Hüseyin'e gelüp Adem peygamberi ve hazret-i Nuh peygamberi ziyarat idüp Ahi Evran anun nefes oglıdur buna şekk eylemekden katı i'tiraz üzere olalar her kimesnenin ne muradı maksudu olur ise muradma irişe. Zira ehl-i erkan dercatıyla çıkmışdur ve on yedi peygamberin işledügi san' at buna icazet virilmişdür. Bunları su'al idüp yirlü yirine hizmetine (?) mezbur ta'yİn olmuşdur.
Bi.'avni 'I-mehki 'I-Vehhab.
Semaniyeti aşar ve mieteyn ve elf. (1218) min hicret-i menlehu'l
izzu ve ve' s-saadetu ve' ş-şeref.
Şeddi kuşanmadan mukaddem bu du'a okunur:
Allah Allah Inna'lIahe ma'a's-sabirin.
Hak Te'ala vardır. Şeriki nazirİ yokdur. Padişah oldur veziri yokdur. Ferd-i yektadır. Elifin ma'nası bu. Ol ahad fahr-i "alemdür. Muhammed Mustafa nur-ı kevneyndür. Muhammed Mustafa cemalündür senün. Nurı Ilahi yüzündür 'alem mihri mahı nisak olsun. Sena dünya ve 'ukba sensin ki din-u dünya padişahı es-selamu 'aleyküm ya erbab-ı ehli şeri'at erkanı Muhammed'e salavat. Der-miyan idelüm varımızdan yarimizden hanı-manı terk idelüm canı dildarımızdan sırrımız gizlü degildir vakıfsız esrarımıza çün evvelden berü didilerde soralım ıkrarımıza es-selamu 'aleyküm ya erbab-ı ehl-i tarikat erkanı Muhammed'e salavat, Ehl-i derde dert olalım nokta gibi ferd olalım huşalım kuhı haraba tadilin abad olsun nanı ni'met kaya şu dünyada bir 'ad olsun bize teslim olalım dlibe irşad olsun es-selamu 'aleyküm ya erbab-ı ehl-i hakikat erkanı Muhammed'e salavat. Du'acıyım du'acıdan armagan du'a Hakk kılıcı Sultan Ahi Evran-ı Velinün tariki bir takdir tarikin irşad idelim şu dünyada bir 'ad olsun pire teslim olalım talibe irşad olsun. Es-selamu 'aleyküm ya erbab-ı ehl-i ma'rifet erkanı Muhammed'e salavat. Destini destime virgil deste-girimdir. Allah pir ile yok pervane kıblemiz dergahsız erenler huzurunda şeddi kuşanıp piri pir olmak ister halkalar ne büyüksüz ihtiyarlar ustalar ehle mahallihim cemalen can irişdi el-hamdu li'llahi ne devletlü zemane irdik el-hamdu li'llahi vatandan gayrı düşdüm yabanaden yola geldim gene geldim el-hamdü li'llah Resülün seccadesi çün bize virildi el-hamdü li'llah dini pak Hazret-i Muhammed Mustafa ra salavat 'azameti Huda. Tekbir:
Allahu ekber Allahu ekber âh âh
Uyandı cân gözi el-hamdu li'llâh
1. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çağatay'. work soon to be published in English: "Bir Türk Kurumu Olan Ahilik: A Typically Turkish In.ntuıion: the AIthi Order", Ankara Üniversitesi bilıiyat Fakültesi Yayınlan, Ankara Üniversitesi Basımevi, '974, pp 3.
2. Kaşgarlı Mahmud, "Divanü Lügat-it Türk", V, I, pp go,
3. İdem V. I, pp 310, V. III. pp 17' and 3'9. Divanü Lügât-it Türk Dizini,published by the Turkish Language Society and prinıed by Ankara University press, Ankara, '97' ed., pp 7.
4. Prof Dr. Neşet Çağatay', work mennoned in note t above, pp 4
5.idempp.5 6.idem pp5.
7.idem pp 5.
8. Ebu Abdi'r-Rabman Muhammed ıbn el Huseyn es-Sulemi (translated by Süleyman
Ateş) pub1isbed by Faculty of TheolO(!Y Univenity of Ankara, Ankara Univenity press, '977. pp 4.
9.Prof. Dr. Neşet çağatay, work menuoned in note ',5-7 above, pp 5.
10. Es-Sulemi, work mentioned in note (8) hereabove, pp. 7.
11.Prof. Dr. Neşe! Çağatay, work mentioned in note 9, pp 57, Sabahattin Güllülü
"Ahi Birlikleri" Ötüken Yaymevi, 1977> pp 149, Cevat Hakkı Tarım "Tarihte Kırşehri, Gülşehri", Istanbul, 194B, pp 78, Enver Behnan Şapolyo "Tarihte Kırşehir" Ankara, 1966, pp Mithat Gürata "Unutulan Adetlerimiz ve Loncalar". Ankara 1975, pp 78.
12.Bas-relief dragons are to he found on Alay Kban (Inn), Ejder (Dragon) Kban, Susuz Kban, Kayseri Karatay Kban, Tuzhisar Sultan Kban, Kayseri Döner Kümbet, Kayseri Sahabiyye Medresseh, Çankırı Hospita!, Erzurum Double-Minaret Mosque, Diyarbakır Casue and Fortification, Ahlat tombstone. of Seljukid period, white dragon motif. Take place in omamentation. lo be found on fountain taps, door handles in Anatolian homes ete.
13. Prof. Dr. Emin Bilgiç's ardele in 'Turkish Encyelopoedia' on "Deluge", pp 446.
14. Ahmet Yaşar Ocak "!slâm-Türk İnançlarında Hızır Yahut Hızır-İlyas Kültü", a publication of Türk Kültürünü Araştııma Enstitüsü Yayınları, Ankara University Press 1985, pp 121.
15.Sadi Bayram "Musavvir Hüseyin Tarafından Minyatürleri Yapılan ve Halen Vakıflar Genel Müdürlügü Arşivinde Muhafaza Edilen Silsile-Name': published in Vakıflar Dergisi V. XIII 1981, pp 253-254 and printed.. the Press of the Prime Ministry; Sadi Bayram; "Amasya Taşova -Alparslan Beldesi Seyyid Nureddin Alparslan er-Rufai'nin 655 H.!1257 M Tarıhli Arapça Vakfıyesi ile 996 H./ 1598 M. Tarihli Seyyid Fettah Vell'nin Sillsile-namesl", Vakıflar Dergisi, V. XXIII, Tisamat Basım Sanayii, Ankara 1994, pp. 34: Sadi Bayram; "Silsıle-namele. ve IrlandaDublin Chester Beatty Library'de bulunan 1598 Tarihli Zübdetü't-Tevarih", Vakıflar Dergisi, V. XXIV, Tisimat Basım Sanayii, Ankara 1994, pp. 51.
16. Hüseyin Atay "Fatih Süleymaniye Medreseleri Ders Programlları ve İcâzetnâmeler" published in Vakıflar Dergisi, V. XIII, in 1981., pp. 197-205; Diploma of Haji Salim Bayram (my grandfaıher) Ahdurrahman bin İsmail Akifzade Amasyevi (my greatgrandfather, d. 1808 AD) whose works are;
"Fi Teracümül Meshaikh va'l Ulema"
"Fi Münebbihatu't Tahirin"
A list of his works "Kitabu'I Mecmuu Fil Meshuri ve'l Mesmu" is in Istanbul Millet
Küıüphanesi - sheet 40 -41. This famous scholar had also endorsed the deed of trust of Beyhan Sultan in his capaciıy as [nspecıor of staıes in mortmain aı the Minisıry of Pious Foundations.
17. Hüseyin Atay's work mentioned in note 16 immediately above, pp 197-205 Akhi Hujjadj Muhammad bin Yusufs genealogical ne kept in the Archives Department of the General Directorate of Pious Foundations under general cIassification of 1907, K. '39 and dated , 29' AD.
18.My thank, go here, to Mrs Aliyye Evran, a descendant ol Akhi Evran, the Patron Saint of traders and craftsmen and to Mrs. Ülkü Özsoy, one ol my colleagues.
19. Sadi Bayram an Akhi Genealogical Tree, VIII. Pre-ottoman, And Ottoman Sympoium, Minnesole, August, 1987.
20. Sabahattin Güllülü', "Ahi Birlikleri", Ötüken Yayınevi Istanbul 1977 pp. 149-150.
21.Sadi Bayram'. work "Türklerde Esnaf Teşkilâtı Ahilik ve Loncalar", Milli Kültür,
Vl, pp 7, Ankara July 1977, pp. 48-53'.
22 Enver Behnan Şapolyo "Ahiliğin Tarihçesi ve Ahi Evran-ı Veli", Onasya Mecmuası, V.ll, pp 20, San Matbaası, April, 1967.
23. Prof. Dr. Neşet Çağatay'. "Bir Türk Kurumu Olan Ahilik", pp 58. Abdülbalki Gölpınarlı'. "Mevlana'dan sonra Mevlevilik", l.stanbul I953, pp 275.24.Yılmaz Önge,"Türk Çarşılarında Dua Kubbeleri", Onasya Mecmuası V. VI, pp 63, Ayyıldız Printinghouse, November '1969.
25. Zafer Bayburtluoğlu's "Anadolu'da Selçuklu Dönemi Yapı SanatçıIan, Atatürk üniversitesi Yayınları, Erzurum, 1993, pp. '40.
26. İbrahin Numan's, Çankırı'da Yaran Sohbet Odaları, Vakıflar Dergisi, İssue No. XIII, pp.591, and dated 1981.
27.Seyridar oLm... lazım.
28 Belirtme durum eki ( hemze) ile verilmişti.
29. Yönelme eki hareke ile verilmiştir.
30.880 H. (1475-6 M.).
31. 933 H. (1526-27 M.).
|Yayınlandığı Yer: Tür tarih Kurumu, Belleten ,08.1994.|
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AhÎlik Müessesesinde Yönetim (genel Olarak)
Ahilik Ve Ahi Evran-ı Veli Vakfiyesi