THE 1682 SiLSiLE-NAME AT THE PRIME MINISTRY GENERAL DIRECTORATE FOUNDATION OF PIOUS
By Sadi Bayram
The Silsile-name' (Genealogical Tree) ( 1) is a manuscript dating back to A.H. 1094/ A.D. 1682, with miniature paintings in it, made by the Musavvir (Portrait Painter) Hüseyin, in the Archives of the Chairmanship of the Department of Culture and Registration of the General Directorate of Foundations of the Prime Ministry, and is registered with an inventory number of 1872. Furthermore, it was recordedin the list with a number of K. No. 4, 181 ( 2).
A Silsile-name is defined .in Western civilization as a "Genealogical Tree". The Turks call it a soyağacı (family tree) or şecere (genealogical tree) and it is alsa called a nesebname (written genealogy). It is a type of chart showing those who are relatives in a family. The Turks(3) placed great importance on the family that had a patriarchal family order. They were always respectful towards their ancestors and for this reason, they made various family trees. This tradition stili persists in old and well-known families in Anatolia. In fact, the family tree of the Koç family, which comes from the Hacı Bayram ( 4)family lineage, is exhibited at the Sadberk Hanım Museum in İstanbul.
An office called Nakibü'l Eşraflık (Office of the Chief of the Descendants of the Prophet) was established to keep track of the people who were members of the family of the Prophet Muhammad. This office took care of the affairs of the family of the Prophet, recorded their deaths in a register, that is, they kept a sart of written genealogical tree. They prohibited the members of the family from workin in jobs unsuitable for them and from behaving in an improper manner. They provided a type of guardianship. The Nakibü'l Eşraflık was the second highest office alter the Galiphate at the time of the Abbasids. The Nakibü'l Eşraflık was also established during the reign of Sultan Yıldırım Bayezid in the Otloman Empire. They would gird swords onto the sultans. A mansion was allocated to them at the Yıldız Palace during the reign of Abdülhamid ii. Their slaries were raised to 5,000 kuruş (piaster) alter 1908. This institution became history alter the abolishment of the sultanate. The Nakibü'l Eşrafs gave genealogical trees to those who were coming from the family lineage of the Prophet Muhammad and they also certified these with their own special seals( 5)
The titles such as prince, princess, count, countess, lord, lady, baron, baroness, sheik, king of kings, maharajah and emir, that are found in the European and Asian countries, are the most personified examples of this tradition.
lt is a fact that before the dervish lodges and dervish convents were closed, the tariqah sheiks, caliphs, dervishes and Bektashi chiefs had genealogical trees ( 6).
Generally, silsile-names were made with or without miniature paintings within a medaılion. In silsile-names without miniature paintings, the names and the branches separating from them were shown in one circle each with the dimensions of only 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 cm. As for the ones with miniature paintings, they included smail portraits of the twenty-eight prophets mentioned in the Holy Koran, starting from Adam, miniature-style portraits of the caliphs and some heroes who lelt a trace in history or sultans. Consequently, the number of miniature paintings changes from one manuscript to another.
A great approach to painting is found in the miniature paintings. In particular, colors and the wearing apparel of the people were selected to suit the character of the person who was being portrayed. The designs of the cloth reflected the motifs from verbal folkloric literature.
The Symbolism of Colors
Violet or purple was a colar that determined the status of the high offices in the Middle Eastem civilizations. It was used in the apparel of high-Level clergy and statesmen. It was produced by mixing blue, which represented loyalty and honesty, and red, which represented war. Violet or purple used in harmony with blue, was considered to be the symbol of death, fate, penitence, faithfulness, justice and moderation.
Blue was accepted as the color of immortality, eternity, purity, prudence and honesty. Blue was considered to be holy in Eastem philosophy. Sky blue symbolized God in shamanism and in the Far Eastem culture.
Green, which is a mixture of blue and yellow, was accepted for centuries as the color of abundance, fertility, immortality and victory. The Muslim religion has chosen green as a color that symbolizes rebirth and the revival of nature. Christianity was symbolized with red and Judaism with sky blue.
Yellow symbolized the sun, wealth and precious metals. The rays of the sun, reminds one of light, and consequently, intelligence and wisdom. The yellow sun in the morning, symbolized the revitalization of the universe with its energy by the divine existence and its light, honest work and earnings.
lt was believed that red symbolized love, courage, martyrdom, fortitude, belief, faith and generosity. Throughout history emperors, kings and religious leaders preferred the color red, because it iimmediately attracted attention(7).
Black, because it absorbs all colors, has been the symbol of seriousness, nobility, death, mouming and evil powers. Formerly, in Great Türkistan (Turkestan) and in the Uigurs, brides would wear black when getting married. The dervishes of the Kadiriye order and the Abbasid Caliphs preferred the color black. The Prophet Muhammad had a black flag made after the Khaybar Military Expedition. For this reason, the Omayyads and the Abbasids used a black flag. The sheath of the flag was green(8). Consequently, the Abbasid Caliphs have always been portrayed in black apparel in the genealogical ttrees. They believed that they owned the black flag.
White was the symbol of colorlessness, purity, innocence and a pure and virtuous state of mind in the course of attaining the divine truth. The Prophet Muhammad, in his first expeditions, used a white flag. For this reason, when the Sultan joined a campaign with the Ottoman Army, there would be seven flags in front of the Band. It was the custom for the first one of these flags at the front to be white, the second, green; the third, red; the fourth, yellow; the fifth, white and green; the sixth, red and yellow (Janissary) and the seventh, red and white.
Even though there is not a verse in the Holy Koran prohibiting the portrayal of faces, the sacred hadith prohibits portrayal to prevent the idolization of a human being, to stop the revival of idol worshipping and because to create is unique to God. However, although the people were seen to abide by these prohibitions, these thoughts were overcome by the bureaucrats in high positions at the palace and in the Mevlevi Convents, and due to the profoundness of philosophical ideas, the prohibitions iimposed by the hadith were interpreted differently. The magnificent manuscripts prepared in limited numbers in the omamentation ateliers of the palace are important documents reflecting Turkish cultural history. In the Turkish culture, the best answer to those who say, "There are no portraits in Islam and the Turks", is to show them the portraits in the miniature paintingt style in the genealogical trees (9).
However, according to our present determinations, the number of genealogical trees with miniature paintings throughout the world does not exceed seventeen. These have been determined in locations such as the Topkapı Palace Museum (10) in Istanbul, the Archives of the General Directorate of
Foundations ( 11) the Ankara Ethnographic Museum (12), the National Bibliothek (13) in Vienna, Austria, the Chester Beatty Library ( 14) in Dublin, Ireland, the Museum of Turkish Islamic Arts in Cairo, Egypt (15), the El-Sabah Collection (16) in Kuwait, the Nasır EI-Halilı Collection (17) in London and the Karlsruhe Museum in Germany (18).
The Silsile-name, which is our subject, is kept at the Chairmanship of the Department of Culture and Registration of the General Directorate of Foundations. It was brought to Ankara in 1940 from the Teşrifatı Mahmud Library near the Yahya Efendi Mosque at Beşiktaş in IstanbuL. It is called the Haza Kitabu Silsile-name (Perfect Book of the Genealogical Tree). Consequently, it can be said that the manuscript was originally coming from the palace. The manuscript has the dimensions of 172 x 282 mm and a Morocco leather binding It consists of 40 pages (20 leaves) and contains 101 miniature paintings. It is understood from the gluing that it must have been repaired at least once. Thinking that the marbled paper on the inside of the cover was lost during the repair of the binding, it was deemed appropriate to use marbled paper in the facsimile edition.
The first page (1b) of the manuscript is iIIuminated and the omamentation diagram is reminiscent of the Fatih (Sultan Mehmed II, the Conqueror) Period. Although the use of different floral motifs in the acroteria indicates a development, the fact that the green is a glass-green, takes us back to the Seljuk Period. The pediment section is decorated with rumi and hatai designs and the stems of the flowers are painted in cobalt blue. Under the pediment a thick, black rectangular frame is used and on top of it there is a simple pattern in white in the shape of plus (+) signs. The inner part of the page is symmetrically decorated with hataı and rumı designs and contours were not used. The background of the title section of the book is empty and the title is written with cobalt blue.
The manuscript is composed of two parts. The first part is the text composed of 16 pages. It starts from the 1 b leaf and ends on the 9a leaf (page 16). The second part starts from page 17 (9b lea~ and continues up until page 40 (21 a lea~. This part includes the miniature paintings and family lineages of the prophets starting from Adam, the caliphs, rulers and the famous heroes who were dominant in the world up until the date that the manuscript was prepared.
There are also some different usages and same mistakes in the text, since it was written in 1682 and because it used verbal historical information. Since Arabic was the language of scholars and persian was the language of literature in the Islamic world in that period, Persian was used in the poetry. Generally, the Persian poetry was dated by using the ebcet hesabı (enumeration by letters of the alphabet). In prose we observe the extensive influence of the Arabic and Persian languages and cultures. When translating the manuscript into the new alphabet, it was attempted to remain royal to the original text. Since some words were marked with vowel points, they were pronounced phonetically. In words ending with letter (b), the letter (p) was not used as is done in the spoken llanguage." The Egyptians used the letter (cim) as (g), as in Yezdigird. Particularly, in our original text, it is written as Yezdicürd. AIso, in our text, the Menuçihr or Minuçihr forms were not used as they were marked with vowel points by writing Menuçehr.20 The end of the origina! pages are shown with their lleaf numbers in square brackets.
The text of the Silsile-name starts as follows (21):
Haza Kitabu Silsile-name
(Perfect Book of the Genealogical Tree)
The text is trans!ated into English as follows:
Eternal praise and thanks to God, who created the world of creatures, which is a drop of water in the sea of generosity. Everything we see in this world is a flicker of His light. He created the entire world, by bringing it from Levh-i Mahfuz (22) (the tablets of Gods decrees preserved to the end of time) to the world of creatures by saying, "Be !",(23) and he gaye beautiful shapes to them. He chose human beings from within the creatures and made them into a summary of the book of the universe. According to the hadith, "He kneaded Adam's dough in forty days"(24), and by sowing Adam in this world as a seed, the verse, "Undoubted/y, we made human beings very superior. We carried them on land and on sea (25) "25 This showed the superiority of human beings compared to the other creatures. He created human beings in His own shape and by also reflecting to them His attributes, said, "We created human beings in the most beautifu/ shape.(26) "By making him the caliph on earth",(27), He raised his superiority from the earth to the heavens. He chose from His lineage many prophets who made miracles and the saints who made miracles, and among these He especially chose the Prophet Muhammad Mustafa as the most superior and the last of the prophets and made him theo object of His blessings. Let our greetings, respect and prayers be on him until the end ot the world. He is a heaveniy messenger for whom Gad said, 'If you had not existed, then I would not have created the worlds (28). The Sacred Hadith states, " was a secret treasure and created the worlds, so that i am known (29)," addresses best to him and he himself knew God the best, who said, "My Godl We could not know You as we should, we could not be Your slave as we should (30)." He sets an example for all mankind, according to the verse, "No doubt Muhammad is a Prophet and there were many prophets prior to him" ( 31)," he is also their leader, he is the head of the chain of prophets, guide of the class of saints and the center and sun of the chain of chosen people.
After this, in the book called Bidayetü'n-Nihaye (The beginning of the endi, describing the lives of the former shahs and kings, it was told that those who ruled Yemen and Hadhramaut, were called Tubba. The plural is Tebabia. Those who ruied Damascus and Mesopotamia were called Kayser (Caesar) and the plural is Kayasire (Caesars). The rulers in the regions of Persia were called Kisra (Chosroe) and the plural is Ekasire (Chosroes). In Egypt, if the ruler was from the Copts, that is anan-Muslim, then he was called Firavun (Pharaoh) and the plural is Feraine (Pharoahs). Those ruling Abyssinia were called Necaş; (Negus), those ruling India were called Batiemos (Ptalemy) and the sultans of Deylem (32) were called Keyani (Royal). They added the word "key' in front of their names such as Key-Kubad, Key-HOsrev. Key means padişah (ruler). The rulers of the Ağat (Akkad) tribe were called Nemmd (Nimrod), the plural is Nemaride (Nimrods).
In same history books the sultans were written as follows: Ekasir-i Acem (Chosroes of Persia), Kayas/f-, ROm (Caesars of Byzantium), FağfOr-, Çin (Emperors of China), Havakin-i TOrk (Rulers of T urks), AkMf-I Arab (Rulers of Arabs), TeMbi-i Yemen (Rulers of Yemen), Rayan-, Hind (Raj,hs of India), MOlükiSasan (Kings of remote ancestors of Sassanid dynasty), AI-i BOveyh (Büveyh Dynasty), SelBlin-i Selçuk (Sultan of the Seljuks), Hakan-, HalZem (Ruler of Khorezm) and Batiemos-, Yunan (Ptalamy of Greeks), the plural is Batalise. Undoubtedly, only God knows the absolute truth.
The Classes of the Sovereigns
The reigns of 11 kings lasted for 4181 years.
The history of humanity has been separated into various stages in the historical works.
Pishdadians (First Dynasty of the Kings of Persia):
They were called Pishdadians because they were very just people. Their reigns lasted for 2588 year
KeyyÃ»mers, the Son of Velad:
The Keyyumers were the first kings of Ihe Persians and the greatest kings of humanity.There is a
dispute among the historians on the subject of whether or not Mehyail was a grandson of these. In t the manuscript called Imam-, Gazali Nasiha!'OI-MOlük (Advice of Imam Gazali to the Kings), it says t that he was the brother of Seth. In the manuscript called Nizamu'! Tevarih (The order of histories), K Kadı Beyzavi tells that KeyyOmers is the grandson of Noah from his son Shem. It is recorded in his s torical sources that the institution of the sultanate first started at the time of KeyyOmers
The historian who wrote the history of the world
Mentioned the eternal words as follows
The first sultan who conquered a country
Was KewOmers the leader of the famous
When he ascended the throne and wore the crown
He abolished land taxes from the villagers.
In some sources, it is written that he lived for 1000 years and reigned for 550 years. However, in the Şehname (The Book of Kings) it was mentioned that his reign was 30 years.
He was a shah in the world for thirty years
His face was a sun aware of everything.
They were the ones who built the first houses in the world. It is said that they founded the cities of Balkh, Isfahan and Demavend. They wove clothing and caftans from silk thread and animal hair. Digging wells to get water, bringing water via canals to fountains, planting fruit trees and throwing stones with a catapult and sling were their inventions (33).
KeyyÃ»mers had seen the evil in this transitory world and left the sultanate to his son Siyamek. It is s said that he devoted himself to praying by abandoning the world.
Siyamek, the son of KeyyÃ»mers
Siyamek was killed by giants. His reign lasted for a very short period of time.
Huşeng, the son of Siyamek
In the Şehname it was written that he lived for 500 years. His reign lasted for 40 years.
Just Huşeng ruler of theworld
Took over the crown from his father.
lt is said that he was a very just ruler. Many cities and soup kitchens for the poor were built during his reign. It is said that the cities of Susa, Şuşder, Isfahan, Babylon and Kufa were founded in his time. They say that extracting gold and silver by mining, cutting trees and making lumber and carrying water via irrigation canals were his inventions. To make fur coats from the hides of animals such as sables, squirrels, raccoons, Iynxes and foxes were also his invention. To have the hunting dog fetch the hunted game, to produce fire from stone, that is, a lighter, to wear clothing and weapons were his inventions.
Velvönü, the son of Mernikid, the son of Huşeng:
Since he did not have ason, then Tahmurs, his grandson, became the sultan.
His reign lasted for 30 years.
Finally Tahmurs became the sultan
His reign lasted for thirty years in the Iands.
He declared the unity of God with its evidence
He instated the evidence of Judgment Dayand the resurrection. Finally he died and was no longer seen
The world also killed him.
His sultanate coincides with the time of Enoch. These were gianHike, large sized humans. They used to catch harmful jinns and demons and imprison them in earthenware jars. Sometimes they would kil! them by shooting arrows. To saddie and ride horses, to load camels with burdens, to mate mares with donkeys to produce mules were started in his time. Training hunter animals such as leopards, eagles, goshawks, peregrine falcons, tame bears, heciz (34) sparrow hawks and falcons to use them in hunting was done for the first time in his time. He alsa built Taberistan (country on the Southem shores of the Caspian Sea), Hirev (Herat ?), Fars and Amid (35).
Cemşid (Achaemenes), the son of Enucihân:
His reign lasted for 706 years.
When Tahmurs passed away
Lucky Cemşid ascended the throne.
A globe of sun arose in the horizon
Cemşid's law became prevalent in the world.
Since Tahmurs did not have a son, his brother Cemşid (Achaemenes) ascended the throne. It is not known how long he lived. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras (36), the science of music, the art of playing music and singing, squeezing grapes to make and drink wine were invented at this time. Musk, agalloch and galyes (37) were first used at this time. Astrology appeared for the first time in this period. To make plaster, white lead and baths and to set up tents were the personal inventions of Cemşid (Achaemenes). To dive in the sea and extract pearls and to determine aday called Nevruz (38) (the Persian New Year [March 22] and day of the vemal equinox) were alsa his inventions. Due to the fact that he never got iII in his life, he had the people worship him and declared himself Gad, by the deceptiveness of the devi!. He had idols of himself erected everywhere he ruled and that evil person chose Zoroastrianism. This was at the time of Noah. Şeddiid, the son of Ad, sent Dahhak, the son of Alva, to murder Cemşid (Achaemenes). Dahhak split him into two pieces with his sword. Şeddiid, the son of Ad, was a grandson of Noah's son named Ham. Şeddad alsa had a brother named Şedid. Şeddad lived for 260 years, Şedid lived for 300 years. The Prophet Hud (Heber) invited them to God's religion, but they refused and were destroyed. Şeddad founded a city called heaven in the province of Damascus. It is rumared that as soan as he entered into the city, he was destroyed along with all of his soldiers. His heaven alsa perished. A statement in the Holy Koran (39) mentions this heaven.
Dahhâk-ı Mari ( 40) :
He lived for 1000 years.
When Dahâk ascended the throne and became the sultan
His sultanate lasted for one thousand years.
His real name was Buyurâst He knew witchcraft. In same books it said that this was Nemrud (Nimrod). Abraham was the prophet at that time. It is said that he destroyed Cemşid (Achaemenes) and took his place. He reigned for 1000 years
with cruelty and torture. Growths formed on both of his shoulders. Every day he would kill two people and use their brains as an aintmentto soothe thepain. The tradition of killing men by whipping or hanging them descendedfrom him. He is from the generation of Noah's son Shem. Same Persian historians say that he is connectedto Adam going back three generations. Noah asked Dahhâk to join his religion, but he did not accept. Dahhâk was murdered as an idolater by Feridun.
Feridun Ferruh: Verse:
At an auspicious time, at a happy time With a happy and auspicious step, Feridun ascended Dahhak's throne And wore the blessed crown
Ferıdun Ferruh was the grandson of Cemşid (Achaemenes). He became a
His reign lasted for 500 years.
Muslim and conquered many countries. He had three sons. He gaye the Byzantine and the Maghreb provinces to his son named Sellim and ca"ed it Kayser (Caesar). He gaye the provinces of Türkistan and China to his son named Tur and called it FağfıJr (China). He gaye the Fars and Iraq provinces and the Hejaz and Khorasan lands to his son named Irec and called it Şam (Damascus).
Medicines were his invention. Training elephants and having them serve mankind was his doing.. Building fortresses around the cities appearedfor the first time in this period.
His reign lasted for (...) years.
Shah Menuçehr, with dignity an authority
He put that magnificent crown onto his head He attached all the ranks with tricks
And his sovereignty prevailed.
He was the son of Irec's daughter. Feridun's sons Sellim and Tur killed their brother İrec. Menuçehr was a very brave person. With the help of Feridun he took the revenge of his grandfather and defeated both of them. When Feridun died, Menuçehrtook his place. He had the Euphrates River flow into the lands of lraq by opening irrigation canals and trenches. Şuayb was chosen as the prophet at this time. Moses and his brother Aaron were bom.at this time. At that time, a bad, cruel person named Velid from the descendants of Ad (mythical ancestor of an ancient peoplein Arabia who were exterminated for refusing to themessage of a prophet) wasPharoah in Egypt. Shem, Neriman and Zalwere bom during his time. Digging trenches around the fortresses was started during his time.
Novzer, the son of Menuçehr:
His reign .Iasted for 25 years.
Since Shah Novzer had his father's temperament,
Sameone else wore the crown coming from Satum.
He became a sultan, but since he coLild not rule the country well, Efrasyab came through Persia and took his country from him and destroyed him. The Prophet Joshua lived at that time.
Efrasyilb (Persian legendary hero):
He lived for 400 years and his reign lasted for 120 years. Couplet:
When the dark night was gone and the sun rose Efrasyab ascended Novzer's throne.
Efrasyab, as we mentioned before, is one of the grandson's of Tur, Feridun's son. After the death of Novzer, the son of Menuçehr, Efrasyab became the sultan of Fars and other Iands. He was very cruel. He turned Persia into ruins with his cruelty.
His reign lasted for 30 years.
They brought the good news to him, by saying, "Feridun's crown is yours".
Same called hirn Darab (Darius 7). In Taberi Tarihi (Taberi History, written by Ebu Cafer Muhammed bin Cerir Et-Taberi, 839-923) he is referred to as lubin Tahmasb bin Menuçehr. When he heard about Efrasyab's excessive cruelty, with the people collected around him, he declared war against Efrasyab and expelled him frorn his country. He converted Baghdad, which was previously a smail viiiage, into a city. Later, he transferred the reign to Gorşasb, the son of Goştasb,who was his uncle's son
Gorşasb, the son of Goştasb:
His reign lasted for (...) years. His mother was one of the descendants of ıbn Yarnin, the son of the Prophet Jacob. Rüstern-i Distan is alsa from his descendants. He turned the kingdorn over to Keykubad.
The Keyani is their king. Theyare 9 persons and ruled for a total of 938 years.
Keykubild (Name of the first king of the legendary Achaemenian dynasty of ancient Persia, Cyrus the Great ?):
Their first shahs, the Keyan shahs were very honest. Verse:
Just shah, hem Keykubâd
He reigned in this world one hundred years with justice.
The Prophets Hızır (Iegendary person who attained irnrnortality by drinking from the water of life), Elijah, Elisha, Şirnoil (7) and Harkıl (7) lived at this tirne. Keykubfıd accepted the religions brought by these prophets and provided all sorts of assistance on the subject of their communications. Rüstem-i lal, Mehrab-ı Karnil, Karun-ı Dizem and Kişvaz-ı lerrin were his commanders.
Keykavus (Artaxerxes ?):
His reign lasted for 150 years.
When he took his father's p/ace
The en tire world entered under his rule.
He was the son of KeykubM's brother. When he was accused of adultery, he was killed by his son Siyavuş during the tirne of King Salomon, the Prophet.
Keyhüsrev (Cyrus ?), the son of Siyavuş:
He lived for 160 years. He fought a lot against Efrasyab. Finally, he was killed
His reign lasted for 120 years.
When Lehrasb became the su/tan of the country Every city and region entered under his ru/e.
He was the son of Keykavus' brother. The Prophets Üzeyr (?) and Daniellived at this time. Lehrasb accepted their invitations. Nebuchadnezzar was his govemor.
Goştaşb, the son of Lehrasb:
His reign lasted for 120 years.
When Goştaşb sat on the Persian throne
He closed the doors of justice and faimess.
Zoroaster, the founder of loroastrianism, appeared at this time. Initially, he was one of the students of the Prophet Ermiya (Hızır), then he obtained some knowledge related to some occult sciences from others and elaimed to be a prophet. He wrote a book called Kitab-ı Zende (book that loroaster elaimed descended to him), which was full of myths and superstitions and misled both the people and Goştaşb. He founded a city called Beyza in Shiraz and Kadı Beyzavı as well as Sheik Ebu ıshak Fıruzabadi are from there. The philosophers named Socrates and Camseb (Camasb ?) also lived at this time.
Erdeşir Behmen (Ardashir ?):
His reign lasted for 112 years.
Erdeşlr Behmen is Goştaşb's son and is the father of Isfendiyar. When Isfendiyar died in a fight with his brother Rüstem, Goştaşb gave his throne to Erdeşlr Behmen. After Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Jerusalem, it was rebuilt by Erdeşır Behmen. The philosophers Bukrat (41) and Dubkratis lived during these times.
Dara, (Darius ?) the son of Behmen:
His reign lasted for 14 years.
When Darab ascended the throne
He tied his beit around his waist and opened his hands.
He was the student of Socrates and founded the Pythagorean school. The
Peripatetic school also appeared at this time. Rüstem-i lal died at this time. Couplet:
If you make the transitory world talk, what remains from what?
If you would make the dead speak; some are Cem, some are Dara.
Dara (Darius ?), the son of Darab:
His reign lasted for (...) years.
He was a person with very bad morals. The people did not like him. He was killed in his tent by a few worriors and they brought Iskender-i Filkos (Philip ii of Macedon ?) to the throne.
Iskender-i Zülkaneyn-i Sani-i Yunani:" (42)
His reign lasted for 36 years.
The period (life) of Alexander who ascended the throne
became "bord u reft (43).
Actually, he is Darab's (Darius's ?) son. Since he was raised by Philip II, they
caU him the son of Philip. He ruled the east and west. He built the wall (44) against Gog and Magog. His quest for finding the fountain of life went to extremes, but he did not find it and returned. He reigned for 36 years or 14 years depending on the stories. Same historians write that Alexander murdered Darab. In his last days, he called the sons of the leaders ruling the Persian lands and he distributed these countries of their fathers among their sons as sanjaks. Thus, these were the nationalities into which the great empire broke up. However, his son called Tus (Alexander Aegus) was being educated in philosophy by Aristotle and did not accept the rule of Alexander's lands of Greece. A person called SOs became the ruler in the lands of Greece, Egypt, Damascus, Yemen, the Mahgreb and Iraq. After this, those who ruled were called batalise (ptolomies).
Third Class Eşkanyan (Parthians ?)
These are alsa called the nationalities into which the great empire broke up. Eşkan, the son of Dar: His reign lasted for 30 years.
Şabur (Shapur), the son of Eşkan: His reign lasted for 60 years. Jesus Christ was bom at this time
Behram (Bahram), the son of ŞabOr (Shapur): His reign lasted for 15 years. Bilaş, the son of Behram (Bahram): His reign lasted for 11 years.
Hürmüz (Hormuz). the son of Bilaş: His reign lasted for 19 years.
Tursi, the son of Bilaş: His reign iasted for 40 years.
Firuz; the son of Hürmüz (Hormuz): His reign lasted for 17 years.
Bilaş, the son of Firuz: His reign lasted for 12 years.
Daro Biladan, Firuz's uncle: His reign lasted for 40 years.
Bilaşan, the son of Bilaş, the son of Firuz: His reign lasted for 24 years. Ezdivan, the son of Bilaş: His reign lasted for 13 years.
Ezdivan, the son of Eşkiyan: His reign lasted for 11 years.
Bilaş, the son of Eşkan: His reign lasted for 2 years.
Cudriz, the son of Eşkan: His reign lasted for 20 years. He killed the Jews for the blood of John the t Babtıst.After that the Sons of Israel became very contemptible.
Serri, the son of Cudriz: His reign lasted for 20 years.
Cudriz, the son of Serri: His reign lasted for 11 years.
Erdivan: He was the final Eşkanyan. Erdeşir (Ardashir) murdered him. His reign lasted for 31 years.
Fourth Class Sassanids:
These are called Ekasire (Chosroes). They were 13 persons. Their reign continued for a total of 431 years.
Erdeşir (Ardashir) Babek: He was one of Sasan's sons, who was the son of Behmen. He reigned for
At the time of Şabur (Shapur), the son of Erdeşir (Ardashir), the heretic called Mani ( 45) (Manes) a . appareared His reign lasted for 31 years.
Hürmüz (Hormuz), the son of Şabur (Shapur): His reign lasted for 3 years.
Behram (Bahram), the son of Hürmüz (Hormuz): The heretic called Mani (Manes) was assassinated. r His reign continued for 2 years.
Behram (Bahram), the son of Behram: His reign lasted for 2 years.
Behram, the son of Behram, the son of Mehram: His reign lasted for 13 years.
Tursi, the son of Behram: His reign lasted for 73 years. He ascended the throne of his brother.
Hürmüz-i Tursi: His reign lasted for 7 years.
Şabur (Shapur), the son of Hürmüz (Hormuz): His reign lasted for 72 years.
When Hürmüz-i Tursi died, his wife was pregnant. They gave the name of Şabur-ı
-Eknaf to the child bom. He took taxes from Constantinople. He built the city of Medain. He captured the Arab lands and Yemame (region in the eastem part of the Arabian Peninsula) and gaye them back to the Arab beys.
Şabur (Shapur), the son of ŞabGr-1 Zevi'I-Eknaf: His reign lasted for 11 years. Theyalsa called him
Yezdicürd (Yazdagird), the son of Behram (Bahram): His reign lasted for 21 years.
Behram-Gur (Bahram-Gur), the son of Yezdicürd (Yazdagird): His reign lasted for 23 years.
Yezdicürd (Yazdagird), the son of Behram (Bahram): His reign lasted for 16 years.
Hürmüz (Hormuz), the son of Yezdicürd (Yazdagird): His reign lasted for 15 years.
Firuz, the son of Yezdicürd (Yazdagird): His reign lasted for 20 years. There was a serious famine at
Pilaş, the son of Firuz: His reign lasted for 3 years.
Kubâd (46) (Kavadh i), the son of Firuz: His reign lasted for 26 years. The heretic Mezdik (Mezdek)" claimed to be a prophet. Mareaver, he claimed, by saying, "Everyone's property and women are allawed for everyone." The people, because Kubad believed this pervert, removed him from the throne and brought his brother Camseb. However, Kubad once again seized the power.
EnGşirvan-1 Kisra (Khosru i, Khosru Nushirvan or Chosroes i), the son of Kubad (Kavadh i): His reign lasted for 47 years. He had the previously mentioned Mezdik killed. Later, he ru/ed in arather just manner. He took Kayser under his dominatian. The Prophet Muhammad was bom towards the end of his life. Nuşirevan died in 888 according to the Alexandrian calendar.
Hürmüz (Hormuz), the son of Nuşirevan: His reign lasted for 12 years.
Perviz, the son of Hürmüz (Hormuz): His reign lasted for 38 years. This cursed man did not accept the invitation of the Prophet Muhammad and did not become a Muslim. He married anan-Muslim girl named Şirin and he constructed a grand pa/ace in her name called Kasr-ı Şirin.
Şirviye (Kauadh ii Shiruya), the son of Perviz: His reign lasted for 8 months.
He killed his father and ascended the throne.
Erdeşir (Ardashur), the son of Şirviye: He is the son of Şüheyrir Sifehsalad. His reign lasted 1 year, 9 months.
Alter this, the reigns of Kisra Arslan Bey; Kisra, the son of Kub8.d; TGran, the daughter of Perviz lasted for 6 months; Perviz, the son of Behram; Ezremi, the daughter of Perviz lasted for 4 months; FerrGh Zad, the son of Perviz, lasted for 1 month; and the reign of Yezdicürd, t~e son of Şehriyar lasted for 30 years. He was killed during the time of the Caliph Omer and the Muslims captured the lands of Persia. It was the eleventh year of the Hegira of the Prophet Muhammad.
The Grek Kings :
These are alsa among the nationalities into which the great empire broke up.(47) lt is mentioned in this manner in the book called Ravzatu'l-Menazır fi İlmi'lEvail ve'I-Evahir of the deceased historian named ıbn Şuhne. After Iskender-i Filkos (Philip ii of Macedonia) died, the Greek state remained in the hands of the Baıaıise (Ptolomies). Bat/emos means Ptolemy. These were 13 persons. Their total reign was for 275 years.
Ptolemy i (son of Lagus, Soter): His reign lasted for 20 years.
Ptolemy ii (Philadelphus): His reign lasted for 38 years. He translated from the
Turan-Hebrew language to Greek.
Ptolemy iii (Euergetes): 25 years. Ptolemy iV (Philopator): 17 years. Ptolemy V (Epiphanes): 35 years.
Ptolemy Vi (Philometor): 24 years.
Ptolemy VII (Physcon or Euergetes ii): 29 years.
Ptolemy Viii (Lathyrus or Ptolemy Soter ii): 16 years.
Ptolemy iX (Alexander i): 9 years.
Ptolemy X (Alexander ii): 3 years.
Ptolemy Xi (Auletes): 8 years.
Ptolemy Xii: 29 years.
Ptolemy Xiii: Her reign lasted for 22 years. This woman commilted suicide at
the time when the Romans defeated the Greeks and the rule of the Greeks ended. The Romans became dominant in her country.
The Roman Kings (48):
Alyos, Bulos, Ağnetis (they gave him the name of Caesar), Asos, Filortos, Bazoz, Sasabos, Taytos (this cursed man once again destroyed Jerusalem). Antonis, Merfuş, Fermud (Sahib-i Necdi died during his reign. Calyos lived during his reign. He proclaimed Christianity). Kotihos Sivaris Antisos Iskenderos Memkihsos Orozbanoş Dakyanos (the Ashab-ı Kehf [the Seven Sleepers] escaped from these and entered a cave [mentioned in the Holy Koran]). Malinos Oryanos Filomos Fererkos Karoş Mantol Maltiyanoş (He was the final idol worshipper. He later adopted Christianity). Erdifilnos (He died from a bolt of lightning. He seized the city of Barbata from Kostantini'I-Muzaffer-i Rumi and developed iL. He made a fortress and named it Kostantiniyye [Constantinople]. He proclaimed Christianity. His mother Hilane, removed the jewelry from her own cross and went to Jerusalem and had the Kamame Church built here. Other than this, she had one each church built in Humus [Homs, ancient Emesa] and Hama [Hamath, Epiphania]. Three of her children ascended the throne). Leksalos Yunyanoş (they also call him ŞabOr [Shapur]). Elitanos Tutyanos Hartnanos Barubsos'ul-Kebir Erkadyos Onuryos Mersadnos Tavdosos (the Ashab-, Kehf[the Seven Sleepers] awoke during his reign, their stories are famous). Elnatlis Laven Zeytun Istabos (He had the fortress of Hama [Hamath, Epiphania] built). Festasos ii, Konstantin i, Tırpos II, Tırpos Marsos Merkok Kokas Herkıl (It is Loflis in Latin). The state of the Romans was ended. Islam became dominant.
God's religion was presented by the Prophet Muhammad and saved mankind from the darkness. As the truths of the religion he introduced were understood, people of many different nations and states in the past were honored with this religion. Other wrong and invalid religions disappeared. Specifically, by abiding with the order of the sultan, "Fight a righteous holy war on God's course (49) against the iinfidels who did not enter the right course and they fought without regard for night or day, far or near, and they tore down the dignity and honor of the infidels. They took their crowns and thrones and annexed their countries to the Islamic territories. Thus, in this manner they saved the world from evi!. They tore down the churches and stuffed their beli s with grass. The sounds of the bells were stopped and instead the sound of the ezan (azan, the call to prayer) started to be heard. All the places of prayer and places of pagan worship were converted into mescid (masjid). Eternal praise to Gad that such a happiness was granted to hirn that was not granted to any of the former sultans and khans.
Praise be to Gad, you became the victor of time and era,
How happy you have become in the country of Murad (attaining one's wishes).
The disciples of Mustafa are on the throne of the Caliphate,
You became the shadow of Gad on the people of the world.
Praise be to Gad, whatever you wished from Gad,
You reached your goal with His eternal help.
After this, thanks to Gad and our greetings and reverence to the Prophet Muhammad, his familyand his friends.
A total of 7350 years have passed since the creation of Adam, the father of mankind; 6860 years since Adam descended to earth, 6790 years since the Ka'ba was constructed, 4962 years since Seth, 5863 years since Enoch, 5685 years after the death of Enoch and 4964 years have passed since the time of Noah. From the Flood 1059 (4760 years in the Muslim calendar), month of Tammuz (1 Oth nıonth of the Jewish calendar), 2408 years since the Era of Nebuchadnezzar (beginning in 742 B.C.) (1069 y.ears in the Muslim calendar), 3401 years since the destruction on 19 April of the Ad tribe (1069 years in the Muslim calendar), 7158 years since Adam's descent on 21 April from paradise (1069 years in the Muslim calendar), 5460 years since the beginning of the Jewish month of Tishri (1069 years in the Muslim calendar), 2760 years since the beginning of the Coptic (Egyptian calendar) (1069 years in the Muslim calendar), 1971 years since the beginning of October in the era of Alexander the Great (commeneing in 312 B.C.) (1070 years in the Muslim calendar), 1029 years in the HatOr Coptic (1070 years in the Muslim calendar) and 1660 years since the birth of Jesus Christ in January. (1069 in the Muslim calendar).
TARiH-I TARiH:I TARiH-I TARIH-I TARIH-I TARIH-I TARIH-I
CELAL(50) FURS-I KADIM(51) HICRI(52) KIPTI(53) RUMi(54) TUFAN(55) HOSOT(56)
6695 6248 6216 5877 5281 2242
Six thousand Six thousand Six thousand Five thousand Five thousand Two thousand TARIH-I
six hundred !WO hundred two hundred eight hundred two hundred two hundred HOSOT
ninety-five lorty-eight sixteen seventy-seven eighty-one lorty-two
4554 3006 3974 3635 3039 TARIH-I
Four thousand Three thousand Three thousand Three thousand Three thousand TUFAN
live hundred six nine hundred six hundred thirty-nine
lifty-four sevenIy-four ninety (? (57))
4114 967 935 596 TARIH-I
Four thousand Nine hundred Nine hundred Five hundred RUMi
onehundred sixty-seven thirty-live ninety-six
818 371 339 TARIH-I
Eighthundred Three hundred Three hundred KIPTI
eiahteen seventy-one thirtv-nine
467 32 TARIH"I
Four hundred Thirty-two HICRI
Four hundred FURS-I KADIM
Because the figures in this table are according to the recent period scholars (n.) to (...) are incongruous.
The use of the above tables in the manner as follows: For example, look at the figure at the point where the hicri date and the rumı date intersectl. Those in the previous line (by going from right to left) will be evaluated as an earlier time. First of all, we find the hicrl cell in the upper part and then we look down at the lower cells and evaluate them. In the cell at the level of Rumı we see 934.58 Because the rumı date is before the hicri, we come to the conclusion, "The Rumı date is 935 years before the hicril date". By comparing the others with this example, the text part of the manuscript is finished.
Part Two of the Manuscript Tha Has the Miniature Paintings
The portraits, located in the second part of the manuscript that starts on page 17 (9b), have been painted in the st yle of miniature paintings. At the top, right and left margins of this page, Chinese clouds painted in gold-yellow and wine-red are in the form of amulets. The hatal designs are in Turkish blue and light wine-red. The ground is without color. Within the semi-circle below these, there is a second decoration of Chinese clouds and hatal designs. The Chinese clouds are painted with gold-yellow and green.
The medallioned miniature paintings are in circular frames immediately below these. Here are the first humans of our world: Adam on the right and Eve on the left have been portrayed side by side. Adam has no beard or mustache and his lips are painted red. We understand from these pictures that Adam and Eve are in their youth. On the same page, is the miniature painting of Abel, who was murdered, on the right, and below him is the murderer Cain. On the left is Abdülharis (?) and below him is the miniature painting of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad.
Enoch,(59) the master of the taHors and accepted as a spiritual teacher, is pictured on the left on page 18 (1 Da). Below is Noah and his ark has been depicted in the background. The ark has landed and the prow of the ark, by making it resemble the taH of a peacock, has been decorated in rather great detail. Noah has been depicted rather realistically, according to his age. In our opinion, the paint on the portion showing Noah's face cracked at arecent date since the manuscript has not been well-preserved. It was painted with care, even the folds of Noah's gown and the turban on his head, of which the edges fall to his shoulders, are swinging. There is perspective in the miniature paintings, just as in the European paintings. The break in the monotony of the depietian of the trees reflects the character of our artisI. On the right is Kahtan, the son of Menval and on the left is Cemşid (Achaemenes), the son of Tahmurs. There are haloes as a symbol on the heads of the prophets.
In our opinion, page 19 (1 Db) is one of the most interesting sections from the aspect of the miniatures and painting
techniques, because we can see traces of the st yle of Levnl on this page (60) The miniature paintings of Dahhilk, the Persian ruler at the upper left, Noah's son Shem on the left, Noah's son Ham on the right and Japheth from which the Turkish descendants are derived on the left, are depicted within landscapes. The spectrum of colors is exceptional. The quadruple medallions above and the triple medallions below do not overpower the page, on the contrary, they create a sense of depth. The hardness and pride of Ham, one of Noah's sons, the thoughtfulness and anxiety of Shem and the nobleness of Japheth reflect the character given to the paintings. The cypress trees remind us of Levni.
Below, the Prophet Salih (?) is together with his camel, on the right; Ireç (- brother Tur-Erech ?) is on the left, and the Prophet Hud (Heber) is at the bottom center. The Prophet HÃ»d's flying shawl and the top parts of the cypress trees bending in the wind, display the reality of the painting. This page reflects to us the status of the Turkish art of painting towards the end of the seventeenth century.
On page 20 (11 a) show n within medallions, are Maçin, the son of Ebu'I-Haş at the top; the Prophet Hızır, in the center; and below on the right, Lot and on the left, the Prophet Abraham(61) The facial features of the Prophet Abraham, who has been depicted as being old are of a quality worthy of consideration.
On page 21 (11 b), at the top is Neriman, the son of Gerşasb; below, separately within two medallions are Isaac and Ishmael; on the left is Shem, below him and somewhat to the right is Afrasyab (62) below on the right, is Lot and on the left is Iys (?).
On page 22 (12a), within medallions are Joseph, Job and in the left comer is Rüstem, the son of lal, the son of Shem; below on the right is Joshua and on the left is lülkifl (thought to be the nickname of the Prophets lechariah, Joshua or Elijah).
On page 23 (12b), within medallions are the Prophet Moses, on the right; Aaron, on the left; Siyavuş, in the lefthand corner; Joshua, on the right; below, Ishmael, on the right and the Prophet Daniel, on the left.
On page 24 (13a), there are the miniature paintings of David, at the top; Salomon (980-960 B.C.), beJow; lechariah, on the right; Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), on the left; John the Baptist, on the bottom at the right; and Jesus Christ, on the left.
On page 25 (13b), the birth of the Islamic religion is symbolized. Abdülmuttalib (d. 577) is at the top center. Below him are the sun on the right, the maan on the left and below is the Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (570-632). His face is covered and he is wearing alarge, plain green gown. It has been attempted to show him in a manner with rays of light emanating around him. On his Jeft is Abu Bakr (632-634), the first caliph; and opposite him, on the right, is Osman (644-656), the third caliph, with the Holy Koran under his arm. On the bottom is Om er (Omar, 634- 644), the second caliph: and on
the right Ali (birth 600, 656-661), the fourth caliph, with his famous sword named Zülfikar at his waist.
On page 26 (14a), at the top, on the right is Hasan (January-February? 625669) and on the left is Hüseyin (1 January 626-680). Below is the Imam Azam Rıza (818). on the left is the Imam Azam Ebu Hanife (767), on the right is Imam Şafi (820) and at the bottom center is Ebu Müslim (755).
On page 27 (14b), there are the miniature paintings of ısmail Samanı (892907) at the top center, below is Ahmed Adil (907-918), belawat the left is Ebu Talib, at the right is EI-Mu'tasım Billah Muhammed (833-842).
On page 28 (15a), there are the miniature paintings of Sultan Mahmud bin Sebuktekin (999-1031), EI-Kahırbillah (932-934) on the right; Sultan Celaleddin (1220-1231) in the center; and Aydoğmuş Khan on the left.
On page 29 (15b), are portrayed EI-Kadirbiemrillah at the upper right; Melik Shah Ebulfeth (1072-1092) at the left corner; next to him is Sultan Sencer (10971157); belawat the right is En-Nasırbillah; and to his left is Hüdavend Shah (12551256) with an open book in his hands.
On page 30 (16a), EI Mustazı-binurillah is at the upper right; Kuh Bey Khan is to the left; below him to the left is Baki Ağa; in the center is Genghis Khan (12061227); and belawat the right is EI-Mustasımbillah (d. 1258). The beard of Genghis Khan and the crowned turban on his head have been created with very fine, careful strokes of the brush and it is understood that the artist was very observant and worked with a magnifying glass (it is worth comparing it with Toktamış Khan on page 31). It is a remarkable miniature painting and isan exceptional example of the color spectrum according to the Oriental race.
On page 31 (16b), Hülagu Khan (1256"1265) is at the top; and Toktamış Khan is at the battom.
On page 32 (17a), the miniature paintings of Gazan Mahmud (d. 1334), (the gold and silver mixture, the weave of the armor is obvious and shining, and is vivid, as thoughit were a copy of the original and is a work of art which displays a very fine workmanship) and of Emir Hüseyin are seen (the death of Genghiz Khan's last grandchild was in 1431).
On pages 33 and 34 (17b and 18a), the founding of the Ottoman State is described and there are the miniature paintings of Kızıl Boğa Khan, at the right; Kaya Alp Khan, (page 33) below him; to the left is Süleyman, the son of Kaya Alp; below is Ertuğrul, the son of Süleyman; and at the bottom is Osman Gazi (b. 1244, rule: 1299-1326). The English translation of the text is given below:
"It is thus related about the lineage of the Osmanoğulları (Sons of Osman) that they were the best horsemen in recent times in Byzantium, because they were hanored with the sultanate and the caliphate.
The Osmanoğulları have been khans and sons of khans from the aspect of lineage ever since Noah
l Noah andeveryone among them has been the symbol of justice from Osman Gazi until the present. All of the Byzantine, Arab and Persian countries have submit!ed to the com man ds of these. May all of God's Muslims be in peace under the flags of these up until the Judgment Day (Amen!)
The grandfathers of Osman Gazi came from Türkistan and stayed around Ah'at for 170 years by conquering Khorasan,.lraq and Azerbaijan. With the sal.lies of Genghiz Khan, four hundred households from the retinue of Ertuğrul came to Anatolia. At that time in the Anatolian lands the sultan was Alaeddin, the son of Keykubad, the son of Genghiz, (63) the son of Sultan Mes'ud Selçuk. He received Ertuğrul well. He gaye the place called Karacadağ near Ankara to him. During this time, Sultan Alaeddin was fighting a war with the Tatars. Ertuğrul helped Alaeddin in this war and they defeated the Tatars.Alaeddin was very pleased with this stuation and become
i even closer to ErtuğruL. After this, when Alaeddin was fighting with the unbelievers in Istanbul, he received much help from ErtuğruL. After this, Alaeddin gave all of the provinces of Söğüt, Domaniç and Ermen to them. When Sultan Alaeddin died, his son Feramuriz became the sultan (680). The Tatar soldiers came to Ereğli at this time. Feramuriz, the son of Sultan Alaeddin, sent Osman Gazi in his place to fight against them. Osman Gazi, other than getting rid of the Tatars from these places, captured many fortresses and seized spoils.
After this, he captured Bilecik. During the conquest, none of those from Bilecik (64) remained. Undoubtedly, after this, Osman Gazi's sultanate grew from day to dayand developed. Osman Gazi ascended the throne in place of his father Ertuğrul (680). He conquered the fortresses of Bilecik and Inegöl in 695 (65) His rule lasted for thirty-nine years. He died at the age of eighty-two. May Gad have mercy on him."
As of Osman Gazi, the diameters of the medallions increase to 55 mm and the background of the miniature paintings is covered with gold leaf.
On page 35 (18b), miniature paintings within medallions are seen from top to battom: Sultan Orhan Gazi (1326-1359), Sultan Murad I. (1359-1389), Sultan Yıldırım Bayezid (1389-1402) and Sultan Mehmed I. (Çelebi) (1413-1421).
On page 36 (19a), miniature paintings are seen of Sultan Murad ii (14211451), Sultan Mehmed ii (Fatih Sultan Mehmed [Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror), 1451-1481) and Sultan Bayezid (1481-1512).
On page 37 (19b), is Sultan Selim i (Both silver and gold wires were used on the clothing of Yavuz Sultan Selim, 1512-1520). Below him is his son Kanunı Sultan Süleyman (Sultan Süleyman the Lawgiver, 1520-1566).
On page 38 (20a), is Sultan Selim II. (1566-1574), Sultan Murad III. (1574-1595) and Sultan Mehmed III. (1595-1603).
On page 39 (20b), is Sultan Ahmed (1603-1617), Sultan Osman Gazi (Genç Osman [young Osman], 1618-1622) and Sultan Mustafa (1617-1618, 1622-1623).
On page 40 (21 a), the final page, the overleaf is empty. The manuscript do es not have an epilogue.
On this page is Sultan Murad LV (1623-1640), Sultan ıbrahim (1640-1648) and last of all, Sultan Mehmed LV (1648-1687).
At the left, below the miniature painting, there is the seal of the artist and the date of completion of the manuscript. It is as follows: with the expressian "Your servant Hüseyin el-Musawir" and the date of A.H. 1094 (A.D. 1682) is clearly read.
There is no dedicatian or eulogy to anyon e at the end of the manuscript. Consequently, the probability appears that it was made as a single sample of the artist. The name of the calligrapher is not given.
This manuscript, that we can say transfers in writing and paintings a type of literature of verbal history of the Middle East, is an important document from the aspect of conveying to us the perception of history and folklore in that period as well as from the viewpoint of the Turkish art of painting at the end of the seventeenth century.
Similar manuscripts that will be compared are as follows:
1. The Subhatu'l-Ahbar (66) Code No. AF 50 at the Nationalbibliothek in Vienna, Austria (We have not yet been able to see or obtain the paintings
of the manuscript No. 17).
The First Part (text) is 6 pages.
The Second Part contains 102 miniature paintings. There are a total of 34
There is no date on the epilogue. The miniatures paintings were painted by Hüseyin of Istanbul and the genealogical chain continues from Adam through Sultan Mehmed iV.
2. The H. 1324 Zübdetü't- Tevarih at the Topkapı Palace Museum (67)
The First Part is a 26 page Arabic text and the first two pages are illuminated. There is biographical information in a brief table about the Prophet Muhammad and his disciples.
The Second Part is 8 pages. It describes the history of the world. The first page is illuminated.
lt starts with: Sipas ale'l- ıtlak...
The Third Part gives miniature paintings within medallions of the famous heroes, sovereigns and prophets in the world from Adam to Sultan Bayezid ıı. There are 79 portraits. It is dated AH. 1006 (December 1597).
3. The No. H. 1591 Silsile-name at the Topkapı Palace Museum Library The First Part is a 26 page Arabic text.
The Second Part is an 8 page text.
lt starts with: Sipas ale'l-ıtlak sitayiş-i bi-istihkak...
The Third Part is composed of 58 pages having 95 medallioned miniature paintings. It has a date of AH. 1006 (September 1597) and ends with Sultan Mehmed ııı.
4. The No. H. 1624 Zübdetü't-Tevarih at the Topkapı Palace Museum Library
The First Part is 8 pages. It gives world history. The title page is illuminated.
The Second Part of the manuscript is a total of 15 leaves and contains 66 miniature paintings with the genealogies. It ends with Sultan Mehmed III, who ascended the throne in AH. 1003 (AD. 1595-1596).
lt starts with: Sipas ale'l-ıtlak sitayiş-i bi-istihkak...
5. The No. 3110 Silsile-name at the Ahmed iii Library of the Topkapı Palace Museum Library
The First Part is 6 pages. The first page is illuminated. It gives world history.
The Second Part of the manuscript isa total of 17 leaves and contains 92 miniatures. In the manuscript that ends with Sultan Mustafa II, the names of the princes were not written, they were left empty. It was the Silsile-name of Lokman bin Seyyid Hüseyin and in the seventeenth century additions were made up to
Sultan Mustafa ii (A.H. 1106 / A.D. 1695 - A.H. 1115 / AD. 1703). The backgrounds are decorated with hatai designs.
lt starts with: Sipas ale'l-ıtlak...
6. The No. T.423 Zübdetü't-Tevarih (68) at the Chester Beatty Library in Dublin, Ireland
The First Part is a 26 page Arabic text. The first two pages are illuminated. There is short biographical information in the tabı e about the Prophet Muhammad and his disciples. It is dated A.H. 1006 (Ap ri i 1598).
The Second Part is 7 pages, the title is illuminated and gives the world history. The final page is missing, the text does not end. The sentence did not finish ("Altıncı
The Third Part contains 86 miniature paintings with the genealogical trees and ends with Sultan Murad III.
7. The No. Cel. 12968 Silsile-name (69) at the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, Franee tyVe did not see the manuscript No. Turc 126)
The First Part is 4 pages of text without illumination.
lt starts with: Sipas ale'l-ıtlak...
The Second Part has 94 pictures in the st yle of engravings and gives genealogies from Adam up to Sultan Ahmed iii, the son of Mehmed. The pictures are not in the miniature painting st yle, but are black and white and some of them are shaded, lt is understood that an enthusiastic reader of books saw a copy of the manuscript in Aleppo and copied it. It was donated to the Bibliotheque de L'abbaya Royale Victor in 1750 by Umayunuz veled-i Şükrü el Çelebi el-Marunı of Lebanon.
8. The No. 8457 Silsile-name (70) at the Ankara Ethnographie Museum
The First Part is 4 pages. The first page is illuminated. It was copied alter the dates of 1603-1606. The text is Persian.
The Second Part includes 140 miniature paintings from Adam until the period it was made and does not resemble the other manuscripts. It belongs to the Eastern Anatolia provincial school (71) lt is conjectured that the owner of the manuscript was attachedtoaShi'itesect.
9. The Haza Kitabun Yüsemma bi Subhati'l-Ahbar min Zübdetü'l Asar (72) in the Arehives of Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Önge
The First Part is 3 pages of text plus a cover. The text is more rnature and plain and it is stated that sorne of the information collected was deliberately ornitted.
The Second Part contains portraits in the st yle of engravings from pages 5,-38.
On pages 39-40, a table has been added in the form of a list containing the birth, ascendence to throne, period of reign and lifespans of the Attoman sultans. The manuscript cavers the period through the death of Sultan Mahmud ii (A.H. 1255/ AD. 1839). It is a lithograph and was printedwith a black and white technique.
10.The Sil sil e-name without miniature paintings in the Archives of Dist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Süheyl Unver
The First Part is a 4 page text. The Second Part gives the genealogical trees without miniature paintings and
we have 26 pages of the manuscript. The manuscript ends with Yavuz Sultan Selim ı. We do not know whether or not it continued after Yavuz. However, we can say that severalleaves of the manuscript are missing.
11. The Silsile-name (73) belonging to the Baghdad school in the EI-Sabah Collection in Kuwait
12. The Silsile-name (74) in the Nasır EI-Halili Collection in London
13. The Silsile-name75 at the Karlsruhe Museum in Germany
Initially, we can consider in three groups these types of manuscriptsclassified as world history (Middle East, Central and Western Asia) according to
the period in which they were written:
1. Manuscripts called Zübdetü't- Tevarih (Summary of History),
2. Manuscripts called Subhatu'J-Ahbiir (Beads of News), and
3. Manuscripts called SiJsiJe-name (Genealogical Tree).
Actually, the manuscripts mentioned in these three groups are similar to each other. They can be with or without miniature paintings. The Subhatu'J-Ahbiirs and Si/si/e-names are exactly identical to each other. Only their names are different.
The Zübdetü't- Tevarihs originally appeared upon the request of Yusuf, the son of Hasan, the son of Abdülhadi, living in Baghdad, from a person for the completion of the genealogical tree of the Prophet Muhammad that belonged to a close friend. We do not know exactly at which date Yusuf, the son of Hasan, the son of Abdülhfıdi lived in Baghdad. However, at the end of the tabı es at the end of the first part of the manuscript numbered TKSMK. H. 1591, it was stated that it was written in A.H. 1006 by Yusuf, the son of Muhammad from Dizful" who lived in Baghdad. He describes himself on page 26 of the manuscript as follows:
"This text was written in the mo nt h of Saf ar in the 1006th year of the Prophet Muhammad's Hegira (September 1597)."
"The author is Yusuf, the son of Muhammad of Dizful, who resides in Baghdad. Gad forgive the sins of the author and the writer of this, out of respect for the Prophet Muhammad."
On page 26 of the manuscript No. H. 1324:
"This text was written in the month of Jumada i in the 1006th year of the Prophet Muhammad's Hegira (December 1597)."
"The author is Yusuf, the son of Muhammad of Dizful, who resides in Baghdad. Gad forgive the sins of the author and the writer of this, out of respect for the Prophet Muhammad."
On page 14a of the manuscript No. 423 at the Chester Beatty Library:
"This text was written in the month of Shawwal in the 1006th year of the Prophet Muhammad's Hegira (May 1598)."
"The author is Ebu Talib of Isfahan, who resides in Baghdad. Gad forgive the sins of the author and the writer of this, out of respect for the Prophet Muhammad."
Consequently, Yusuf, son of Hasan, son of Abdülhadi, must have lived prior to the dates given above.
The First Part is the same in all the Zübdetü't-Tevarihs and was written in Arabic. It is composed of 26 pages and the first two pages are illuminated. Here there is short biographical information on the genealogical trees of the Prophet Muhammad and his disciples, the Prophet Muhammad's battles, his commanders, their daily lives, his servants, slaves, emirs and soldiers, weapons and their quantities, horses and saddie beasts, the fact that the Ka'ba (House of Gad) became the qibla (point toward which Muslims turn to pray), the rise of the caliphs to power and the dates.
The first page of the Second Part is alsa illuminated. Here, the history of the world is described as in the first part of the Silsile-name being considered. It is composed of 8 pages. It starts with: Sipas ale'l-ıtlak However, this part in the Silsile-name at the General Directorate of Foundations that we have read about above is 16 pages. It is not this long in any of the other manuscripts. They end in six or eight pages. In the Zübdetü't-Tevarihs it is eight pages. In the Subhatu'lAhbars it is six pages. In other silsile-names it is three or four pages. Since practically all of them are copied from each other, they have missing or extra words depending on the knowledge of language and grammar of the calligrapher. These are generally words that are eulogic or emphasizing the expressian.
In the Third Part (Part Two in the Silsile-names and Subhatu'I-Ahbars): lt is attempted to give chronologically the miniature paintings of and genealogical trees of Adam and Eve (sametimes an angel in place of Eve), who are the first people in the world, their sons and the prophets derived from them, the world rulers and the legendary heroes, but they were not always successful.
Alter the Prophet Muhammad and the four caliphs, the Abbasid caliphs, the Genghis family line in Central Asia (this page plan is the same in all of the manuscripts), and finally, the Seljuks, Osman Gazi and the founding of the Ottoman Empire. These pages are entirely the same in all the Zübdetü't- Tevarihs, Subhatu'l-Ahbars and Silsile-names. The founding of the Ottomans is described on two facing pages. At the bottom of the lelt page is the miniature painting of Osman Gazi. Then, setting aside the other nations, only the Ottoman sultans until the period when the manuscript was made are given sequentially in detail within one each medaılion, because at that period only the Ottomans were ruling the world. It would be appropriate to exclude only the Silsile-name at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum from this rule.
If the Code Af. 50 and the copy of the General Directorate of Foundations are excluded, then there are no signatures of the artists in these types of siIsilenames. Only the copy at the General Directorate of Foundations has the date written at the end of the manuscript, alter the miniature paintings.
Generally, three main schools are observed in the manuscripts made in the period of Sultan Süleyman the Lawgiver and later periods.
1. The Baghdad school copies (TKSM. H. 1324, 1591, 1624, A. 3110, Chester
Beatty Library, Dublin, National Bibliotheque, France),
2. The Istanbul school copies (Vienna, General Directorate of Foundations)
3. The Eastem Anatolia school copies that we can call provincial (Ankara
Ethnographic Museum, No. 8457) (77).
If we compare these with each other, in the Baghdad school, the texts, illuminations and the page layouts are completely identical to each other and they are multiplied from one sample. Since theyare handmade, minute differences, not easily noticed and not changing the basic contents, can be found. For example, when giying the text of world history, because the calligrapher wrote in smaller print, the end of the page was left blank and was filled with several couplets related to the subject in Persian. In the miniature paintings, while one is shown in positions looking to the right, the other one is looking to the left or front, and there were deviations in colors and apparel.
The Comparison of the copies in Vienna and at the General Directorate of Foundations:
The name of the copy at the General Directorate of Foundations is Haza Kitabu Si/site-name. The name of the Vienna copy is Subhatu'/ Ahbar. We have see n above the world history section in the copy of the General Directorate of Foundations. The text of the Vienna copy is exactly the same as in the Foundation copy until the words Emma ba'dü written in red on the tenth line of page 2.
The section that is different is the part after the words emma ba'dü that is written in red at the middle of the tenth line on page 2 (the middle of line 12 on page 2 in the Foundation copy).
As it can be observed when the two main texts at the beginning of the manuscripts are compared, the Foundation copy is more extensive and global and was written in a plain language that we can call the language of the people. However, the Vienna copy is shorter and less detailed, in which the Greeks, Romans and Byzantines are not mentioned, with the exception of Alexander the Great, and the section on the family lines that ruled in Persia is not as long as it is in the Foundation copy, the place given to other nations, the eulogy given to Sultan Süleyman the Lawgiver (in the text of the first part of the Foundation copy the Gttoman sultans are not mentioned at all and there is no eulogy), shows us that the author of the text benefitted from other similar manuscripts, but was a more intellectual and mature person. There is no record at all in the manuscript about the author of the text. The name of Derviş Mehmed bin Şah Ramazan (78) is alsa not at the end of the text or on the epilogue page. There is no epilogue in the Foundation copy.
The Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha must be the real owner of the manuscript found in Vienna, evidenced by the fact that he is mentioned last of all in the epilogue of the Vienna copy, because there is no mention of ıbrahim Pasha, who was trained by Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha and who served as his Master of the Horse Stables and later succeeded him in the position of the Grand Vizier after the execution of Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha in Belgrade. The
Subhatu'I-Ahbar must have been seized by Prince Eugene de Savoie, the Gommander of the Austrian army in the te nt of Kara Mustafa Pasha alter the defeat. The te nt of Kara Mustafa Pasha is presently exhibited at the Austrian Military Museum (79) Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha paid with his life for the defeat which stemmed from the incomprehensible hate and neglect of the Grimean Khan Murad Giray (80) Kara Mustafa Pasha, as a necessity of being a Gommander in Ghief, was ambitious (81) but at the same time, he had an artistic spirit and because he was interested in literature and poetry, he kept the siege on Vienna for a long time, such as two months, because Kara Mustafa Pasha did not want to bum and destroy Vienna, that was a city of art and literature. He was waiting for the city to surrender without any damage.
The decoration on the Gover of the Foundation copy is archaic compared to the Vienna copy and resembles the Fatih (Sultan Mehmed ii) Period. The Vienna copy has the attributes of the seventeenth century. As for the miniature paintings, it would be rather bold to say that the Foundation copy was much more advanced and remained under the influence of the Westem technique of painting. The cypress trees in the backgrounds of the portraits, their arrangements and the streams are observed in the wall paintings between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These landscapes, which are given in the best manner, particularly for the sons of Noah, just as they could be a coincidence, could also be due to the importance placed on the onset of the Turkish people.
In contrast, on the first page with miniature paintings where Adam and Eve are shown, the Vienna copy is more advanced. The youth of Adam and Eve has been portrayed in the Foundation copy. The fact that the collar of Eve's dress is rather open in both copies, demonstrates the courage and talent of the painter (82). On the opposite page, the miniature paintings of Enoch and Noah resemble each other from the aspect of art and positions. However, Noah's ark is more beautiful and detailed in the Foundation copy. In the Vienna copy, it is as though the ark was made in the form of a duck and a schematic structure was placed on top of it. In the Gel. 12968 Paris copy, it is portrayed in the form of a sailboat, whereas, in the No. 8457 manuscript at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum, it is painted in the form of a boat only.
We can say that the crown on Dahhak's head and the dragon emerging from the crown are the same in both copies. The background behind Dahhak is light blue in the Vienna copy. There are two trees in the background in the Foundation copy.
Both Neriman, the son of Gerşasb, and Afrasyab, are known as legendary Persian heroes. In the meantime, it is accepted that Afrasyab (Alp Er TungaEfrasyab), was also a legendary hero of the Turkish peoples. The portrayals in
both copies are similar. Next to Afrasyab in the Dublin copy is the note we have given in the text below (83).
"This Efrasyab was a Turkish King. All of Türkistan and the people of the Orient and Transoxiana were under his rule. He had so many soldiers that he did not know how many. He waged war against MenOçehr and sieged it for 7 years. Finally, they made peace. There was a mighty man called Erş. He elimbed on top of Demavend Mountain and shot an arrow. The arrow he shot touched the wing of a vulture. This bird flew over Demavend, passed Taberistan, and reached the shores of the Oxus (Amu Darya) River. Afrasyab conquered all of these Iands. No doubt, God knows best the absolute truth."
Genghis Khan and Toktamış Khan resemble each other very much in the Foundation copy. Theyare the perfect Mongolian types. Their facial features, the turban-like crown on their heads, the horsetails, the dagger and the beit at their waists, the clothing models are identical with each other. The fine brush strokes of the beards can only be noticed with a magnifying glass. It will be appropriate here to state the following: In the West one looks at paintings from a distance, whereas, in the East, one looks at them elose-up, or even with a magnifying glass. When you look at a painting from a distance, the mistakes of the artist are not apparent. When you look at a painting elose-up, then all the mistakes are conspicuous. Whereas, the artistic hands of the Turks have painted in detail and very, very finely in a manner not perceived by the normal eye. They engaged in truly eye-straining work. Ga.zan Mahmud's, Genghis Khan's and Toktamış Khan's portraits, with their colored armor that is a mixture of gold and silver wire, are examples of this.
The layout on pages 31-32 of the Foundation copy depieting Hülagu Khan, Toktamış Khan, Gazan Khan Mahmud and Emir Hüseyin; are the same as H. 1324, H. 1591, H. 1624, A. 3110 and in the genealogical trees at the Vienna, Dublin and Topkapı Palace Museum Libraries and the genealggical tree without miniature paintings belonging to Dist. Prof. Dr. Ahmet Süheyl Unver.
The Prophet Muhammad, the Four Caliphs and on the facing page, Hasan and Hüseyin and the Imams are worthy of comparison. In general, the sleeves of the apparel of all of the prophets were rather long and covered their hands (with the exception of those holding books), and were displayed in pious reverence and deep in thought and in a respectful position.
The fact that the portrayals in both the Vienna and Foundation copies were made by an artist called "Hüseyin" and the dates they were made were al most the same, the detailed treatment of even the ends of the turbans, that is, the st yle was that of the same individual and some differences among the miniature paintings show that these were produced at an atelier where the artists worked under the guidance of the head painter. These also show us the Ottoman art of miniature painting.
1. I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Yüksel Yalova, the Minister of State, and Dr. Nurettin Yardımcı. the General Director of Foundations, for their great contributions in presenting a page of the Turkish culture and Givilization to the scholars of the world.
2. See Sadi Bayram, "Haza Kitabu Silsile-name" (Perfect Book of the Genealogical Tree) and "Subhatu'l Ahbar" (Beads of News) from The National Library of Austria, Fifth International Congress on Turkish Art (Budapes!: Magyar Nemzeti Museum, 1975), 33-35; Sadi Bayram, Meda/lioned Genea/ogies (SilsileniJme's) (Ankara: Ayyıldız Matbaası, 1975), 8 pp.; Sadi Bayram, Meda/lioned Genealogies (Silsile-niJme's), Fifth International Congress on Turkish Art, Budapest, 1975 (Budapes!: Akademia Kiado, 1978), 161-165; Sadi Bayram, "Musavvir Hüseyin Tarafından Minyatürleri Yapılan ve.Halen Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi'nde Muhafaza Edılen Silsile-name" (The Genealogical Tree With Miniature Paintings Made by Portrait Painter Hüseyin kept In The Archives of the General Directorate of Foundations o Pious) Vakıffar Dergisi 13 (Ankara: Başbakanlık Basımevi, 1981), 253-338; Sadi Bayram, "Madalyonlu Silsile-Nâmeler" (Medallioned Genealogical Trees) Milli Kültür 3 (Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, March 1977, Ongun Kardeşler Matbaası), 69-73; Sad i Bayram, "Medallioned Genealogies" Image of Türkiye 30 (Ankara: Desen Matbaası, 1990), 11-15; Günsel Renda, "Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi'nde H. 1321 No.lu Silsile-namenin Minyatürleri" (The Miniature Paintings of the No. H. 1321 Genealogical Tree at the Topkapı Palace Museum) Sanat Tarihi Yıllığı (Istanbul, 1973), 443-495; Günsel Renda, "New Light on the Painters of the Zubdat-al-Tawarikh in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts inlstanbul", IVeme Congres International e d'Art Turc (Aix-en-Provence, 1976), 183-200; Günsel Fıenda, "Ankara Etnografya Müzesi'ndeki 8457 No.lu Sılsılename Üzerine Bazı Düşünceler" (Some thoughts about the No. 8457 Genealogical Tree at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum) Kemal Çiğ'a Armağan (Istanbul, 1984), 175-202; Günsel Renda, "Chester Beatty Kitaplığındaki Zübdetü't-Tevarih ve Minyatürleri" (The Zübdetü't-Tevarih and the miniatures at the Chester Beatty Library) Prof. Dr. Bekir Kütükoğlu'na Armağan, (Istanbul, 1991), 485-506.
3 3 Ebul Gazi Bahadır Han, Şecere-i Terakime (The family tree of the Turks), No. 33 in the series, Tercüman 1001 Temel Eser (1 001 basic works published by Tercüman newspaper); Emel Esin, "Son Çağatay Devrinde Doğu Türkistan'dan Resimli Bir Han Silslle-namesi" (Prof. Zeki Velidi Togan'ın İran'da Bulduğu Bir Yazma) (An illustrated Khan Genealogical tree from Eastem Türkistan'ın the final Chagatai period [A manuscript found by Prof. Zeki Velidi Togan in Iran]) Islam Tetkik/eri Enstitüsü Dergisi 5 (lstanbul,1973), 171-204; Sadi Bayram, KaynaklaraGöre Güney-Doğu Anadolu'da Prota-Türk Izleri (The traces of proto-Turks in southeast Anatolia according to sources), (Istanbul: Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları Vakfı, 1989), 37-57.
4. Fuat Bayramoğlu, Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Yaşamı-Soyu-Vakfı (The life-family lineage-foundation of Hacı Bayram-ı Veli), 2 vols. (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1983), vol. 1 , 85-1 04; vol. 2,183-199.
5. Osman Zeki Pakalın, Tarih Deyim/eri ve Terimlerin Sözlüğü (Dictionary of historical expressions and termsı, vol. 2, (Istanbul: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Basımevi), 647; see 'The Role of the Sadât/Asraf in Muslim History and Civilization' Oriente Moderno 18 (79), (Rome, 2-1999).
6.For example, the No. Y. 186 scroll called the Si/si/ename-i Meşayih (The genealogical tree of the sheiks) located at the Topkapı Palace Museum; the No. H. 324 Hacegan fi adabı 'ubudiyeti'la'yan; the No. A. 3356 works called Silsilatü's-Sadatil'n-Nakşibendiwe; No. 9667 Nakşibendi at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum; the No. 1349 Şecere-i Tawibe; the No. 10158 Kadiri; the No. 1256-a Mevlevi; the genealogical trees of Sheik Şaban-ı Veli in the possession of Ümit Esi who inherited it from his family; can be considered to be among the religious written genealogies.
7. Okan Işın, 'Gökkuşağı Sembolizması" (Symbolism of the rainbow) Etiler Aeropajı (Ankara,1996), 93-95.
8.İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı Dev/etinin Saray Teşkilatı (The palace organization of the Attornan state) (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1988), 242; Osman Zeki Pakalın, Tarih Deyim/eri ve Terim/erin Sözlüğü (Dictionary of historical expressions and terms), vol. 2, (Istanbul: Milli Egitim Bakanlıgı Basımevi), 113-121.
9. On the occasion of the 700th Anniversary of the Founding of the Ottornan State, the Exhibition of the Portraits of the Attornan Sultans was opened on 7 June 2000 at the Topkapı Palace Museum in IstanbuL. They were collected from the museums in various countries. Padişahın Portresi (Portralt of the Sultan), Tesavir-i AI-i Osman (Portraits of the Attornan Dynasty), Exhibitlon Catalogue, (Istanbul: Türkiye Iş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Mas Matbaacılık, 2000), 575 pp.
10. Serpil Bagcı, Padişahm Portresi (Portrait of the Sultan), Tesavir-i AI-i Osman (Portraits of the Attornan Dynasty), Exhibition Catalogue, (Istanbul: Türkiye Iş Bankası Kültür Yayınlan, Mas Matbaacılık, 2000), 188-201; ibid., Julian Raby, Gülru Necipogıu, Filiz çagman, Serpil Bagcı, 281-285; Gülru Necipogıu, 44-45.
11.Sadi Bayram, Medallioned Genelogies (Silsile-name's), Fifth Internationai Congress on Turkish Art, Budapest, 1975 (BudapesI: Akademia Kiado, 1978), 161-165; Sadi Bayram, 'Musawir Hüseyin Tarafından Minyatürleri Yapılan ve Halen Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü Arşivi'nde Muhafaza Edilen Silsile-Nâme" (The Genealogical Tree With Miniature Paintings Made by Portrait Painter Hüseyin kept in the Archives of the General Directorate of Foundations) Vakıf/ar Dergisi 13 (Ankara: Başbakanlık Basımevi, 1981), 253-338. extend my special gratitude to Prof. Dr. Günsel Renda, Dr. Filiz Çağman and Prof.Dr.Zeren Tanındı for their assıstance.
12.Sadi Bayram, Ankara Etnografya Müzesi'nde Bulunan Silsile-Nâme, Vakıflar Dergisi, S.28, Sistem Ofset, Ankara, 2004, s.315-363( Fasimile baskı), Sadi Bayram,"Ankara Etnografya Müzesi'daki Madalyonlu Silsilename'de Doğu Anadolu ve Batı Asya" (Eastem Anatolia and Western Asia in the Medallioned Genealogical Trees at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum) Viii. Türk Tarih Kongresi (Eighth Canlerence on Turkish History) (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1981), vol. 2, 645-657, pl. 331-353; Günsel Renda, "Ankara Etnografya Müzesi'ndeki 8457 No.lu Silsilename Üzerine Bazı Düşünceler" (Same thoughts about the No. 8457 genealogical tree at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum) Kemal Çiğ'aArmağan (Istanbul, 1984), 175-202.
13. A facsimile edition was printed by the Yapı ve Kredi Bankası at the Doğan Kardeş Matbaası in 1968.
14. Sadi Bayram, "The 1598 Zübdetü't-Tevarih at the Chester Beatty Library in Ireland", Image of Türkiye, 44 (Ankara: Desen Matbaası, 1991), 3-8; Sadi Bayram, "Irlanda-Dublin, Chester Beatty Library'de Minyatürlü Bir Osmanlı Tarihi (Zübdetü't-Tevarih)", Kültür ve Sanat 12 (Ankara: Türkiye Iş Bankası Yayınları, Ajans-Türk Matbaası, December 1991), 63-68; Sadi Bayram, "The Zubdat-ut Tawarikh ol 1598 at The Chester Beatty Library in Ireland, 93; 51-116 (The facsimile editian ol the work was also given.)
15.I want to thank Prof. Dr. Nurhan Atasoy, who inlormed me of this copy in 1976.
16. Esin Atıl, Art and Patronage, Treasures from Kuwait, The AI-Sabah Collection (New York: 1993), 242-243.
17. Serpil Bağcı, Padişahm Portresi (Portrait of the Sultan), Tesavir-i AI-i Osman (Portraits of the Ottoman Dynasty), Exhibition Catalogue, (Istanbul: Türkiye Iş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Mas Matbaacılık, 2000, s.216
18.Ernst Petrasch, Reinhard Sanger, Eva Zimmerman, and Hans Georg Majer, Die Karlsruher Türkenbeute (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1991), 369-373.
19.In fact, at the General Session of the Second Intemational Turkology Conference held in Istanbul in 1978, in which i had also participated with a paper on the subject of the transcription of Ottoman texts, and in the commission under the chairmanship of Prof. Dr. Muharrem Ergin, scholars coming from various countries of the world could not reach a consensus on this subject.
20. See Clifford Edmund Bosforth, Islam Devletleri Tarihi - Kronolojisi ve Soy Kütüğü EI Kitabı (The handbook of the history of the Islamic states - chronology and genealogical tree), trans. E. Merçil and M. Ipşirli (Istanbul: Ünal Matbaası, 1980); Yılmaz Öztuna, Devletler ve Hanedanlar (States and dynasties), expanded 2d ed., vol. 3 (Ankara: Künür Bakanlığı Yayınları, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1996).
21. I extend my extreme gratitude to the Iate Hayrettin Ersal, Ahmet Hamdi Karabacak and Prof. Dr. Zafer Bayburtluoğlu for their assistance in 1974 and 1979. i thank Kani Özyer, Hüseyin Dağ and Süreyya Tuna, who later simplified the language. i thank Assistant Prof. Dr. Hicabi Kırlangıç, of the teaching staff at the Ankara University, Faculty of Language, History and Geography, Department of the Persian Language and Literature, who translated the poetry in Persian into today's Turkish. Furthermore, i extend my gratitude to Prof. Dr. Mustafa Isen, the Dean of the Faculty of Science and Literature at the Gazi University for completely checking the present text and for making recommendations.
22. The spiritual tablet on which was written the things predestined by God, fate.
23. Verse 82 of the Yasin Suresi (Thirty-sixth Sura) of the Holy Koran.
25 Verse 70 of the /sra Suresi (Seventeenth Sura) of the Holy Koran.
26.Verse 4 of the Tın Suresi (Ninety-fifth Sura) of the Holy Koran.
27. Verse 30 of the Bakara Suresi (Second Sura) of the Holy Koran.
28.Hadis-i Kudsi ( The Sacred Hadith).
31.Verse 144 of the Al-i İmran Suresi( Third Sura) of Holy Koran.
32.Southweat of the Caspian Sea.
33. II is understood that they were not aware of the archaeological civilizalion of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
34. Probably a type of hunter animal that is extinct.
35 .The city of Diyarbakır today.
36 .Pythagoras, sixth century B.C.
37. A fragrance that is a mixture of musk and ambergris.
38.For extensive information on the Nevruz, see Sadık Kemal Tural, Nevruz (Ankara: Atatürk Kültür Merkezi Yayınları, 1995), 346 pp.
39. Verse 7-8 of the Fecr Suresi (Eighty-ninth Sura) of the Holy Koran.
40. The name and place reminds us of the Mari texts in Northem
Mesopotamia. See the Mari Texts, 1800 B.C., at the banks of the Euphrates River close to the comer where the iraqi-Syrian border intersects in the north. Georges Dossin, Archives Roya/es de Mari, Correspondance de Samsi Addu, vol. 1 (Paris, 1950); Klaus Koch, Eckard 0110, Jürgen Rolof, and Hans Schmoldt, Reclams Bibefexikon (Stul1gart, 1978), 319; F. Ellermeier, Pmthetie in Mari und Israel (1968); A. Parrot, Archaeofogie Mesepotamienne (Paris, 1946), 495; Georges Dossin, Benjaminites dans le textes de Mari, Melanges Dussaud, vol. 2 (Paris, 1939), 933.
41. II should actually be Hippocrates, because it was written according to the spoken language.
42. Alexander the Great, 356 - 13 June 323 B.C.
43.The author put the date ol 886 by the calculation with the enumeration by the letters ol the alphabet. It means 'came and went'.
44. Greal Wall ol China, third century B.C. - 221 B.C. See Sadi Bayram, Kaynaklanna Göre Güney Doğu Anadolu'da Proto-Türk Izleri, 46-78, see footnote 3.
45. The founder of Manicheism, 14 April 216- 274/276 (?).
46. A fake prophet in Persia. He was executed during the reign of Nuşirevan Hüsrev in A.D. 528. The Mezdeks had a strong social aspect and aimed to eliminate all the disagreements and reasons for all jealousies and separating people. Theyalsa aimed to share both property and women. Despite the collectivism, the religious aspects were dominant and becauseit was based on pious asceticism and fear of Gad, it was separate from communism. It was a dillerent form of Manicheism. There was an uprising of the people during the reign of Kubı'ıd and he was captured and imprisoned. However, he escaped and took shelter with the Akhuns (Eltalites) and with their help he recaptured the throne in A.D. 498 or 499. Under the pressure of Şehzade Hüsrev. the sympathizers were invited to the palace and all of them were killed.
47. The smail states formed in the Islamic world alter the collapse of the Abbasid Empire.
48. It means the Roman Emperors. There are mistakes in the writing of the names.
49. Verse 78 of the Hac Suresi (Twenty-second Sura) of the Holy Koran.
50. lt is a sun calendar prepared by Jalaladdin Malik Shah, the Great Seljuk Sultan ofKhorasan. in the Celali era, beginning in A.D. 1079. The calendar was given thename ol Celali because the Sultan's nickname was Celalü'd-devle. It starts lrom the date ol 9 Ramazan 471 in the Hicri calendar (15 March 1079).
51. lt is a calendar during the era ol the Persians starting in A.D. 632.
52. The lunar cal en dar used by the Muslims and reekoned from the Hegira, the flight of the Prophet Muhammad from Meeea to Medina in A.D. 622, eonsidered to be the beginning of the Muslim Era. The calendar year eonsists of 354 days and 12 months.
53 lt is a Coptic (Egyptian) ealendar of Aneient Egypt. having a year consisting of twelve 30-day months, with five additional days at the end, leap year not being considered.
54.A solar calendar based on the Julian calendar. One year is composed of 365 1/4 days. It was used in the Ottoman State as a finaneial ealendar, starting with 1 March eaeh year. The years were numbered 584 years less than the Gregorian ealendar.
55. lt is a ealendar starting from alter Noah's Ark survived the Flood.
56.lt is a ealendar starting from Adam's descent from paradise to earth.
57.lt was written 3635 in figures and three thousand six hundred ninety in writing.
58. The author read the previous cell by mistake. The correct figure is 967
59 Just as Enoeh was the spiritual teaeher of the tallors, he also taught them to read. If it is considered that the first writing was the euneiform script and that the Sumerians used it, it brings to mind that Enoeh lived in Mesopotamia. In any ease, alter Enoeh, Noah attempted to bring mankind to the truth path and the sudden oeeurrenee of the Flood, the ark landing on MI. Cadi (Judi) in the Cizre region, shows that this event oeeurred in Upper Mesopotamia.
60. See Hans Georg Majer. "Individualized Sultans and Sexy Women in the Works ol Musawir Huseyin and their East-West Context", Turkish Art, Tenth International Congress of Turkish Art (Geneva: Foundation Max Von Berchem, 1996), 463-471.;Hans Georg Majer, Yeni Yaklaşımlar, Padihahın Portresi, Mas Matbaası, İstanbul, 2000, s.336-349.; Filiz Çağman, Otoman Civilization, Ministry Of Culture Puplications, V.II, pp. 925-926.
61.The Prophet Abraham lived in Urfa. It is lamous lor the cave where he lived, the Mosque named alterhim and the Balıklı Lake. The Sin (the Akkadian god ol the moon) Temple in this region Irom the Prehistoric Period is famous.
62. See the Afrasyab and Alp Er Tunga items in the Türk Ansiklopedisi (Turkish encyclopedia). The orlgins ol the Turks are connected to Alrasyab, that is, Alp Er Tunga. See Yılmaz Öztuna, Devletler ve Hanedanlar (States and dynasties), vol. 3, expanded 2d ed. (Ankara: Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, 1996), 74,127; Sadi Bayram, "Silsile-nameler ve Irlanda-Oublin, Chester Beatty Library'de Bulunan 1598 Tarihli Zübdetü't-Tevarih", Vakıflar Dergisi 24 (Ankara: Tisamat Basım Sanayii, 1994), 55; "Afrasyab Meliki was a Turk. He held ali the people ol Türkistan and the Orient and Transoxiana... He came via Menüçehr and besieged MenOçehr lor 7 years... he shot an arrow which passed over Oemavend and Taberistan and teli at the shore ol the Oxus River (Amu Derya). Afrasyab conquered all that Iand". See p.57 lor the word "Turan".
63 The Seljuks were under the Mongol hegemony in the thirteenth century and Genghiz is not the father of Keykubad.
64. There is something missing in the text. The same mistake is also in the Austrian copy.
65 A.H. 695 is eorresponding to A.D. 1295. Whereas, Osman Gazi died in AH. 726 (A.D. 1326). In the literalure of verbal history, such errors are possible. AH. 698 eorresponds to AD. 1299 and is aeeepted as the founding date of the Ottoman State. On the other hand, in the Dublin eopy it is stated that the date of death of Ertuğrul Gazi was A.H. 680, the date of eonquest of Inegöl and Bilecik was AH. 699, that Osman Gazi died in AH. 730, that he lived for 82 years and his rule lasted for 39 years. See Sadi Bayram, "Silsile-nameler ve Irlanda-Dublin, Chester Beatty Llbrary'de Bulunan 1598 Tarihli Zübdetü't-Tevarih", VakıflarDergisi 24 (Ankara: Tisamat Basım Sanayii, 1994), 58.
66. The facsimile edition of this work was made by the Yapı ve Kredi Bankası as a cultural service at the Doğan Kardeş Basımevi in 1968 and 2,000 copies were printed.
67.Günsel Renda, "Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi'nde H. 1321 No.lu Silsile-namenin Minyatürleri" (The miniature paintings of the No. H. 1321 genealogical tree at the Topkapı Palace Museum) Sanat Tarihi Yılliği 5 (Istanbul, 1973), 443-495; Günsel Renda, "New Light on the Painters of the Zubdat-al-Tawarikh in the Museum of Turkish and Islamic Arts in Istanbul", IVeme Congres Internationale d'Art Turc (Aix-en-Provence, 1976), 183-200.
68. Sadi Bayram, "The 1598 Zübdetü't - T evarih at the Chester Beatty Library in Ireland", Image of Türkiye 44 (Ankara: Desen Matbaası, 1991), 3-8; Sad i Bayram, "Irlanda-Dublin, Chester Beatty Library'de Minyatürlü Bir Osmanlı Tarihi (Zübdetü't-Tevarih)", Kültür ve Sanat 12 (Ankara: Türkiye iş Bankası Yayınları, Ajans-Türk Matbaası, December 1991), 63-68; Sad i Bayram, "The Zubdat-ut Tawarikh ol 1598 at The Chester Beatty Library in Ireland, 93; Sadi Bayram, "Silsilenameler ve Irlanda-Dublin, Chester Beatty Library'de Bulurıan 1598 Tarihli Zübdetü't-Tevarih", Vakıflar Dergisi 24 (Ankara: Tisamat Basım Sanayii, 1994), 51-116 (The lacsimile edition ol the work was given.)
69. I extend my appreciation to Dr. Filiz Çağman who provided the paintings.
70. Sadi Bayram, "Arıkara Etnogralya Müzesi'daki Madalyonlu Silsilename'de Doğu Anadolu ve Batı Asya" (Eastem Anatolia arıd Westem Asia in the Medallioned Gerıealogical Trees at the Ankar? Ethnographic Museum) VII/. Türk Tarih Kongresi (Eighth Canlerence on Turkish History) (Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1981), vol. 2, 645-657, pl. 331-353; Günsel Renda, "Ankara Etnogralya Müzesi'ndeki 8457 No.lu Silsilename Üzerine Bazı Düşünceler" (Same thoughts about the No. 8457 genealogical tree at the Ankara Ethnographic Museum) Kemal Çiğ'a Armağan (Istanbul, 1984), 175-202.; Sadi Bayram, Etnografya Müzesi'nde Bulunan Silsile-Nâme, Vakıflar Dergisi, S. XXVIII, s. ¦¦¦.
71. Gülru Necipoğlu, Padişahm Portresi (Portrait ol the Sultan), Tesavir-i AI-iOsman (Portraits ol the Ottoman Dynasty), Exhibition Catalogue, (Istanbul: Türkiye Iş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Mas Matbaacılık, 2000), 44-45.
72. I commemorate with compassion my friend, the Iate Prol. Dr. Yılmaz Önge, who gave permission lor my research.
73. Esin Atıl, Art and Patronage, Treasures from Kuwait, The AI-Sabah Col/ectlon (New York, 1993), 242-243.
74.We had the opportunity to see the Silsile-name in the EI-Halili Collection displayed at the Exhibition ol the EI-Halili Coliection prepared on the occasion ol the Tenth International Congress on Turkish Art in Geneva. See Hans Georg Majer, Padişahm Portresi (Portrait ol the Sultan), Tesavir-i AI-i Osman (Portraits ol the Ottoman Dynasty), Exhibition Catalogue, (Istanbul: Türkiye Iş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Mas Matbaacılık, 2000), 346.
75 Ernst Petrasch, Reinhard Sanger, Eva Zimmerman, and Hans Georg Majer, Die Karlsruher Türkenbeute (Munich: Hirmer Verlag, 1991),370-371.
76. Dizlul (Dezfül) is presently a city in Iran
77. Gülru Necipoğlu, Padişahm Portresi (Portrait of the Sultan), Tesavir-i AI-i Osman (Portraits of the Attoman Dynasty), Exhibition Catalogue, (Istanbul: Türkiye Iş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, Mas Matbaacılık, 2000). 44-45.
78 We definltely could not understand the reason why Dr. Kurt Holter gave the name of Derviş Mehmed ibni Şah Ramazan as the author. We did not find such a name in the manuscript we studied of the calligraphers during the period of Sultan Süleyman the Lawgiver. For this reason, it is not possible for us to give the name of Derviş Mehmed ibni Şah Ramazan as the author. See F. E. Karatay, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Türkçe Yazma/ar Kata/oğu (Catalogue of Turkish handwritten manuscripts at the Topkapı Palace Museum), vol. 1, p217; the No. H. 1443 Subhatu'I-Ahbar and Tuhfetu'l-ebrar is a Silsile-name continued by Derviş Mehmed bın es-Şeyh Ramazan.
79.Şevket Rado, based on the esteemed historian Yılmaz Öztuna, says that the manuscript must have been taken from the tent of Damat Ali Pasha, who was killed at the Petervaradin DefeaL. Dr. Kurt Holter says that it could have come from the headquarters that was captured by the forces of the Austrian Empire alter it was abandoned by the Turks. either at the Vienna Defeat in 1683 or close to Belgrade in 1717. When the epilogue is examined, it appears to be more logical that it was taken by the Austrians from the tent which belonged to or was abandoned by the Grand Vizier Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha. See Sadi Bayram, "Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa'nın ii. Viyana Bozgununda Viyana'da Bıraktığı Silsile-name" (The genealogical tree of Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha lelt in Vienna alter the second Vienna Defeat), (Paper delivered at the Uluslararası Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Paşa Sempozyumu [International Symposium], Merzifon. 8-11 June 2000, sponsored by the 19 May University, Samsun; the Merzifon District Governor's Office-Merzifon Municipality and the Merzifon Foundation).
80 See İsmail Hakkı Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı TarihI (Ottoman History). 4th ed., vol. 3. pl. 1 (Ankara, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, 1988),451.
81. Ibid., 440-459.
82. Compare with the Baghdad school copies
83 The Dublin, Ireland, copyol the Zübdetü't- Tevarih, leal 20a; Sadi Bayram, "Silsile-Nâmeler ve Irlanda-Oublin, Chester Beatty Library'de Bulunan 1598 Tarihli Zübdetü't-Tevarih", Vakıflar Dergisi 24 (Ankara: Tisamat Basım Sanayii, 1994), 55-56, 78.